The first half of a two-part Bible History Daily presentation of Judith
This is the first half of Robin Gallaher Branch’s article discussing the character Judith, the remarkable heroine of the book bearing her name. The article was originally published in 2012. Click here to read part two.—Ed.
The Book of Judith—considered canonical by Roman Catholics, Apocrypha Literature by Protestants, and non-canon by Jews—tells the story of the ignominious defeat of the Assyrians, an army bent on world domination, by the hand of a Hebrew woman (Judith 13:14).
Indeed her beheading of Holofernes, the invading Assyrian general—in his own tent, with his own sword, and surrounded by his own heretofore victorious army, no less!—marks her as a political savior in Israel on a par with David.
Consider these characteristics:
1. Judith commands, plans, leads. She enters the book bearing her name when the Assyrians have cut off the water supply of Bethulia, the town at the entrance of the narrow corridor leading to Jerusalem (Judith 7:7, 4:7). The siege, which has lasted 34 days, has made the people fractious, thirsty, and bitter (Judith 7:20, 29). Uzziah and the town’s other magistrates succumb the townspeople’s demands and say they will surrender to the Assyrians in five days—unless the Lord takes pity (Judith 7:29-30). Upon hearing this, Judith, instead of going to Bethulia’s leaders, summons them to her home (Judith 8:10). Chiding them for testing God (Judith 8:11–12), she declares she has a plan to save Bethulia, Jerusalem, the Temple, and the people. Declining to reveal it, she nonetheless proclaims her deed will “go down through all generations of our descendants” (Judith 8:32). Not only do the leaders listen without interruption, they also acclaim her for her wisdom and—like all men in this tale!—do her bidding (Judith 8:28–29). She demands that the gates be opened and that she and her maid be let out of the city (Judith 8:33, 10:9).
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2. Judith is verbose. Other women wordsmiths in the Biblical text are Lady Wisdom (Proverbs 8-9), Abigail (1 Samuel 25:23–31), Deborah (Judges 5), and the Beloved in Song of Songs. Judith tops them all with two long statements—first to Uzziah and the other Bethulian magistrates (Judith 8:11-27), and the second to Holofernes and the Assyrian forces crowding around to gaze at her beautiful face (Judith 11:5–19). She prays thrice—once before her adventure starts (Judith 9), then for strength to behead Holofernes (Judith 13:4-7) and finally in a public song at the national celebrations honoring her deed and the slaughter of the Assyrians (Judith 16:1–17).
3. Judith strategizes. Dressing in a way “to entice the eyes of all the men who might see her” (Judith 10:4), Judith and her maid set forth at night down the valley intending to be captured. Stopped by an Assyrian border patrol and escorted by 100 men directly to Holofernes (Judith 10:17), she readily spins a tall tale that contains just enough fact to be believed. Claiming to have direct access to God, she promises to guide Holofernes and his whole army through the hill country to Jerusalem without the loss of life or so much as a dog growling at them (Judith 10:13, 11:19). Her words delight the general and his attendants (Judith 11:20). Calling her beautiful and eloquent (Judith 11:23), he welcomes her to the camp and grants her request to travel through the camp at night to bathe at a spring and pray (Judith 12:5–7). Thus this unprotected and unexpected guest in the Assyrian camp dangles herself alluringly as bait and waits for three days for a chance to strike and save Israel.
4. Judith knows her power over men. Throughout the book, it seems Judith merely smiles and men collapse (Judith 10:7, 14, 19, 23). Wisely appealing to their senses of sight and smell, she mesmerizes them. Her weapons of warfare are sensual and material. She dresses carefully, knowing the success of her ruse and assassination plan depend upon her ability to entice. For her adventure, she removes her sackcloth and widow’s dress, bathes and richly perfumes herself, fixes her hair, selects a festival dress, and dons a tiara as her battle garb’s finishing touch (Judith 10:3). She accessorizes her outfit with rings, bracelets, anklets, earrings, other jewelry, and attractive sandals (Judith 10:4). In the intimate seduction banquet scene set in Holofernes’ tent, Judith simply reclines on lambskins, nibbles her food brought from Bethulia, and flatters the general by telling him “today is the greatest day of my whole life” (Judith 12:15–20). She presents such a pretty picture that gullible Holofernes, beset with lust, drinks himself into senseless, fatal oblivion (Judith 12:16, 20).
5. Judith acts for the common good. Judith murders Holofernes, the enemy of Israel, a world-class bully who slaughtered his way through Put, Lud, the lands of the Rassisites and the Ishmaelites, the walled towns along Wadi Abron, and Cilicia; he set fire to the tents of the Midiantites and the fields of Damascus (Judith 2:23–27). Alone with him late at night in his tent, Judith beheads him with two strokes to the neck from his own famous sword—praying beforehand, of course (Judith 13:4–7)! She rolls his corpse to the floor, yanks down a jeweled canopy from above his bed, walks out of the tent, and hands his head to her waiting maid who puts it in the food sack (Judith 13:9–10). Together the women walk through the Assyrian lines as they have on other nights, allegedly to pray and bathe. This time skipping the prayer-and-bath routine, they head straight up the mountain to Bethulia’s gates. There, Judith starts shouting (Judith 13:14)! The gates open and she shares her story. She carefully proclaims in front of all that she has not been defiled by Holofernes because the Lord protected her; her face tricked Holofernes and brought his downfall (Judith 13:16). Displaying his head, and no doubt unraveling the jeweled canopy, her story is believable. Uzziah proclaims Judith is blessed “by the Most High God above all other women on earth” (Judith 13:18). This verse, an echo of Deborah’s vindication of Jael’s similar, hands-on murder of Sisera (Judges 4:21, 5:24–26), is pivotal in Roman Catholic theology, for it also is spoken of Mary (Luke 1:42, 48).
This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on July 30, 2012.
Click here to read the second half of Robin Gallaher Branch’s study of Judith, in which she analyzes Judith’s extraordinary courage, Judith and her maid, her heritage and theology and her roles as prophetess and countrywoman.
Robin Gallaher Branch is professor of Biblical studies at Victory University (formerly Crichton College) in Memphis, Tennessee, and Extraordinary Associate Professor in the Faculty of Theology at North-West University in Potchefstroom, South Africa. She received her Ph.D. in Hebrew Studies from the University of Texas in Austin in 2000. She was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship for the 2002–2003 academic year to the Faculty of Theology at North-West University. Her most recent book is Jereboam’s Wife: The Enduring Contributions of the Old Testament’s Least-Known Women (Hendrickson, 2009).
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[…] Source: https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/people-cultures-in-the-bible/people-in-the-bible/judith-a-… […]
[…] army, no less — marks her as a political savior in Israel on a par with David.”35 In fact, Andrea Sheaffer characterized David as the archetype for […]
Lovely, madam…..your exposition is opening. I love it so much. I am a graduate of Religious Studies from Delta State University, Nigeria. I love to learn more from you …make out the relevance of the course in me…… 2347039596812
One small correction to the article: Neither Judith or Yael “murdered” those evil men; they “killed” them in the course of war. The correct reading of the Hebrew of the commandment in the Decalogue is “Thou shalt not murder”, not “Thou shalt not kill”.
Good. Now connect this:
Isaiah 37:22 – “…this is the word which the LORD hath spoken concerning him [Sennacherib]: The virgin daughter of Zion hath despised thee and laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee.”
The “virgin daughter of Zion” is Jerusalem, the capital of Judah. Bethulia means ‘virginity’. Jerusalem, though besieged, was not despoiled by Sennacherib’s army. The daughter of Jerusalem is Judith (Yehudit), the feminine form of Yehuda; i.e. Judah. And the head she shakes presumably once belonged to Holofernes.
This interpretation aligns with both the biblical and historical accounts of the Assyrian siege of Jerusalem.
When developing material for a monograph how to conduct a bible study, I included a summary on Judith from the five books that are traditionally not included on the bible. I discovered that there are several lessons one can draw (exegesis) by reviewing it. Also it is easy to see how artists throughout the years have used the story as a basis for making a great painting
WHAT A NICE PIECE THERE.
I WILL ALERT THAT EVERY GOOD CHRISTIAN SHOULD TRY AND READ THESE BOOKS CALLED APOCRYPHA/DETEROCANONICAL BOOKS.
FOR INSTANCE, THIS BOOK OF JUDITH HAS JUST THOUGHT ME THAT, NO MATTER HOW U WERE CREATED, U CAN ALWAYS BE A CONQUERER BY IDENTIFYING YOUR GIFT AND MAKING GOOD USE OF IT TO GOD’S GLORY.
JUST BY USING WHAT SHE HAD MORALLY, SHE FREED A WHOLE NATION OF ISRAEL AND EVEN THE ASSYRIANS FROM THAT EVIL HOLOFERNES.
THIS BOOK PICKS THE PICTURE OF DAVID, SMALL AS HE WAS BUT GIFTED WITH THE SKILLS OF A STRING, FREED A WHOLE NATION FROM THE SNARES OF GOLIATH.
[…] of Yael from the Book of Judges who kills the general Sisera with a mallet and tent peg, or Judith who decapitates another general, […]
[…] she had lived her widowhood for 84 years, thus placing her great age at 105 years, the same age as Judith when she died (Judith 16:28). Besides, one may note that miracles and unusual occurrences were […]
Why write about someone or about a book that is not in the bible? Is it not just important to focus on the bible? Are we not told in tge bible we should not take away or add to this bible book?
[…] had lived her widowhood for 84 years, thus placing her great age at 105 years, the same age as the Judith when she died (Judith 16:28). Besides, one may note that miracles and unusual occurrences were […]
Juidith is a bioth
[…] involved in the action. More of doing it half-heartedly. It reminds me of how Caravaggio did the Judith Slaying Holofernes story. In his image, Judith is squemish and not really feeling it, unlike the story and Artemisia […]
[…] sword—praying beforehand, of course (Judith 13:4-7)! — Robin Gallager Branch, writing in the Biblical Archaeology Society journal. Judith beheading the Holofernes, Caravaggio, painted in 1598 […]
[…] Slayer of Holofernes, Circa 450BC, Biblical/Apocryphal […]
[…] Biblical stage (vv. 36-37). If the former, she could well be 105 years old, the same age as the apocryphal figure Judith when she died (Judith 16:28). Some scholars figure it this way: Anna married at age 14, evidently […]
I’m creating an illuminated manuscript on the Book of Judith, to be exhibited at MOBIA in June! Inspired by the great Judith paintings of the past, transforming them and interpreting them in a new way! I’d love to share the ideas governing the new work and the images: moon gold, egg tempera on Classic English vellum.
[…] Apologetics is Unavoidable Judith, Friend of JuniaAugust 6, 2012 By scotmcknight Leave a CommentRobin Gallaher Branch, in Biblical Archaeology Review, has an article about Judith, whom I consider a friend of Junia […]
I was looking to see is there was archaeological proof of Judith as my breakdown of the book seems to say there are a lot of discrepancies for the locations in the book and some regard it as a novel. Plus, it would be great to debunk ideas of women not being as important as men to God.
I specially ordered a copy of the apocrypha as I am not a Catholic to study books from it, and the theory presented in there seems to go toward novel and Judith being representative of the whole of Israel. However, if she was a real person it would be great.
Wonderful re-telling of the famous tale.
It has also been written that the story
is also a representation of heroic Israeli women. “Judith” in English, and possibly in Hebrew, is the female form of the word “Jude”, the now-infamous word that means Jew. Could Judith have been ANY Hebrew widow?