Bible and archaeology news
**In the July/August 2013 issue of BAR, Hazor excavation director Amnon Ben-Tor describes the destruction of Hazor at the hands of the Israelites. Read more in Bible History Daily.**
The recent discovery of massive jars of scorched wheat at Canaanite Tel Hazor may shed new light on the destruction of one of Israel’s most prominent sites. The discovery of the 3,400 year-old wheat in a Late Bronze Age palace structure give a more complete image of the area’s agriculture before the destruction, and can help date the fire through carbon-14 analysis.
Joshua 11:10-13 describes the Israelite destruction of Hazor:
(10) And Joshua turned back at that time, and took Hazor, and smote its king with the sword; for Hazor formerly was the head of all those kingdoms.
(11) And they put to the sword all who were in it, utterly destroying them; there was none left that breathed, and he burned Hazor with fire.
(12) And all the cities of those kings, and all their kings, Joshua took, and smote them with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them, as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded.
(13) But none of the cities that stood on mounds did Israel burn, except Hazor only; that Joshua burned.
This destruction is a highly debated subject in Biblical archaeology. The Book of Joshua suggests that after the conquest of Hazor, Joshua quickly took all of the land between the Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee. The Book of Judges (4:1-2, 4:23-4) presents a different picture, in which the settlement of Canaan is a slow, generally peaceful infiltration of scattered tribes gradually coexisting with the Canaanites.
Whatever the case, the destruction is well attested. The jugs of wheat are far from the only evidence of a large fire in the palace: excavations have produced burnt cedar beams, a collapsed ceiling, bricks cemented from heat exposure, and soot on the walls. The palatial building containing the massive wheat jugs is attached to another palace. The two structures would have served differing purposes; one administrative, the other ceremonial.
Excavation directors Amnon Ben-Tor and Sharon Zuckerman have different takes on the destruction. In the article “Excavating Hazor, Part Two: Did the Israelites Destroy the Canaanite City?” Amnon Ben-Tor and Maria Theresa Rubiato write that “the ‘Israel’ of the Merneptah Stele seems to be the most likely candidate for the violent destruction of Canaanite Hazor.”
As the point where three of the world’s major religions converge, Israel’s history is one of the richest and most complex in the world. Sift through the archaeology and history of this ancient land in the free eBook Israel: An Archaeological Journey, and get a view of these significant Biblical sites through an archaeologist’s lens.
In the BAR article “Where Is the Hazor Archive Buried?” Zuckerman states that “More recent dating of this destruction places it too early for the Israelites. Yet Ben-Tor is right in excluding the Sea Peoples (who included the Philistines), the Egyptians and rival Canaanite cities. Who is left? I believe it was an internal revolt within the city that was responsible for the destruction. The city was then abandoned until the arrival of the Israelites.”
The expedition to Hazor in the mid-1950s, led by the late Yigael Yadin, was the largest and most important archaeological excavation undertaken by the young state of Israel.
Tel Hazor, the largest archaeological site in northern Israel, features an upper tell of 30 acres as well as a lower city of more than 175 acres. The excavation team discovered the large clay jugs of burned wheat in what they call a palace from the Bronze Age city, which occupied more than 200 acres of land.
Hazor Excavations’ Amnon Ben-Tor Reveals Who Conquered Biblical Canaanites
Where Are the Royal Archives at Tel Hazor?
Crafty Israelites: Iron Age Crafts at Tel Hazor
In Hazor: Canaanite Metropolis, Israelite City, a popular summary of 30 excavation seasons by long-time Hazor dig director Amnon Ben-Tor, discover ancient Hazor’s remarkable history.
Sharon Zuckerman, “Where Is the Hazor Archive Buried?” Biblical Archaeology Review, March/April 2006.
Amnon Ben-Tor, “Who Destroyed Canaanite Hazor?” Biblical Archaeology Review, July/August 2013.
Amnon Ben-Tor, “Excavating Hazor, Part One: Solomon’s City Rises from the Ashes,” Biblical Archaeology Review, March/April 1999.
Amnon Ben-Tor and Maria Teresa Rubiato, “Excavating Hazor, Part Two: Did the Israelites Destroy the Canaanite City?” Biblical Archaeology Review, May/June 1999.
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It is now 2015. Where are the carbon 14 dates from the grain? Maybe they did not like the results?
We don’t have to wait for Radio Carbon Dating methods to tell us the date, the Bible has done all the work for us. The invasion of the Israelites into Canaan can be very easily worked out from the starting date of 586 BC when Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Solomon’s temple. Simply adding all the dates given in the Bible we come to c.1439 BC for Joshua crossing over the Jordan. Generally most Theologians place the entry at about 1410 BC while most historians favor a later entry in the time of Ramses. In summing up, Joshua crossed the Jordan c.1439 BC, and the Israelite Exodus from Egypt was c.1479 BC. The Pharaoh – Tutmoses 11
[…] 3,4000-year-old Canaanite Ruins Supports Joshua 11:10-13 – N. Wiener, Bible Hstry Dly […]
I believe some dendrochronological measurements (tree rings) indicate older ages, like 1500-1800 BC. No doubt, many of those pieces of furniture or roof beams were older, reflecting when they were 1st built rather than the time of their destruction. But the considerable age still seems to reflect significantly older age than 1300 BC.
My chronology ( http://www.truth1.org/chrono-judge.htm ) indicates a 1453 BC entry into Canaan. No dendro dating can be found that late. Further, I have read about Hazor reflecting many Middle Bronze traits rather than Late. New dates will be interesting.
Conventional dating for Merneptah’s reign is 1213-1203 B.C.E. —so “ISRAEL” was there at least as late as that time (late 13th century B.C.E. but we don’t know for sure how much ealier in the 13th century
(THIS is the LOW estimate for their settlement of Canaan )–but if you favour other earlier seetlement theories–whether the 1 post-Exodus invasion or the multi-exodus and longer infiltartion settlemt theories these could stretch back another 75-200 years
….so you are really talking of anywhere from the mid to late 13thcentury B.C.E to the mid to late
15th century …if the carbon 14 results are earlier than the mid to late 15th century B.C.E. then the conclusion would be that the burning at Hazor was not from the Israelites…but if it is even in this HIGH range of mid to late 15th century then the multi-phase Israelite settlement of Cannan over a longer period still could give an Israelite cause of that destruction.
Of course if the carbon 14 comes closer to the low range of the 13thcentury B.C.E then you get an even stroger case for Israelite involvement. (because we know “ISRAEL” as described by the Mereneptah Stele was settlled there already.
Depending on the High or Low chronology results of that carbon 14 test– one can still ask : Was Jodhua a real historic person or a mere literary invention ? IF he was real –did he come with the earlier wave of Isrealite incusion into Cannan after an Exdodus fromEgypy or did he come in a later wave in the LOW chronology range?
The Carbon 14 tests can’t answer those questions..
THE LOW chronology setllement date range precludes the Jericho walls destruction by Israelite invaders because that has a latest estimate at late 15th century which could be around 2 centuries before Merneptah …
So a later as opposed to early chronology for the HAZOR burnning as exposed by the carbon14 results
could support the conclusion of a longer Israelite settlement period
AND logically therefore the multi-phase EXODUS from Egypt theories IF one still attributes Jericho walls destruction by the Israelites too OR the later LOW chronology on HAZOR burning could rule out the Israelite destruction of Jericho leaving it as TORAH fictional attribution to the Israelites …It depends on whther you accept the multi-exodii theory,the one exodus theory, or the no exodus theory but a peacefull longer settlement infiltration from who knows where by “ISRAEL” and some invntive storytelling fabrications<OR
the Israelites were rebellious Cannanites theory…
In other words the carbon 14 tests on Hazor won't prove the TORAH is "TRUE" because there are different conclusions one can make from these results …
While a HIGH chronology result for the HAZOR burning that puts it into the Jericho walls destruction
time-frame is better for provving the
one exodus JOSHUA proposition
and the TORAH as true advocates will trumpet such as their "proof" —
there still is no archeological proof the perps of these destructions were "ISRAELITES" only that they MIGHT be "Israelites".
Anyway -if you are a TORAH as the TRUTH advocate –you had better hope for a HIGH chronology result
for the HAZOr destruction …IRONICALLY a LOW chronology result while it confirms the majority view of a late 13th century Israelite settlement after the Exodus IF there was an Exodus –leaves the contradiction problem concerning The Jericho walls destruction as an indicator that some fibbing was going on in the Torah relationg of Israel's invasion of Cannan after the exodus.
A High Chronology result for the Hazor burning leaves open the possibility at least that Israelites could have been responsible for both destructions.
THIS is the conclusion i get from following this debate on the Exodus and Conquest issues in the BAR pages these many years.
I hope I have interpreted the debate correctly and that this condensed analysis of the implications that could come from the Hazor burning carbon 14 dating results provide all who follow this with a helpful clearing of the mind on what this all MEANS and what is does not MEAN.
Amazing! I can’t wait to read more on this.
Carbon-14 results to be withheld until formal findings report is published.
Taylor, the exact date is still uncertain, but the archaeological consensus is that the destruction layer is in the 13th century B.C.E. Let’s wait for some carbon-14 tests for more info!
What years would this have been?