Searching for Biblical Mt. Sinai

The case for Har Karkom in the Negev and the case for Saudi Arabia

This Bible History Daily feature was originally published in 2014.—Ed.


Emmanuel Anati stands before Har Karkom, a ridge in the Negev that he believes inspired the Biblical Mt. Sinai. Photo: Hershel Shanks.

Where is Mt. Sinai? At a 2013 colloquium in Israel, an international group of scholars debated the question. At the center of the debate was Har Karkom, a mountain ridge in the Negev Desert that archaeologist Emmanuel Anati believes to be the Biblical Mt. Sinai. Or could Mt. Sinai be in Saudia Arabia, where Moses was thought to have fled after escaping Egypt? In “Where Is Mount Sinai? The Case for Har Karkom and the Case for Saudia Arabia” in the March/April 2014 issue of BAR, Hershel Shanks examines these candidates.

Biblical Mt. Sinai has never been identified archaeologically with any scholarly consensus, though several sites have been considered. According to Shanks, none of the scholars who attended the colloquium in Israel discussed the traditional location of Mt. Sinai—the mountain called Jebel Musa looming over St. Catherine’s Monastery in the southern Sinai. Jebel Musa’s identification as Mt. Sinai developed in the early Byzantine period with the spread of monasticism into the Sinai desert. Curiously, no Exodus-related archaeological remains have been recovered in the Sinai Peninsula—through which the Israelites must have traveled out of Egypt—dating to the traditional period of the Exodus, around 1200 B.C.E.

In the free eBook Ancient Israel in Egypt and the Exodus, top scholars discuss the historical Israelites in Egypt and archaeological evidence for and against the historicity of the Exodus.

An abundance of rock art can be found at Har Karkom, including some that Emmanuel Anati interprets as Biblical motifs. A rectangular grid divided into ten spaces suggests the Ten Commandments Moses received on Mt. Sinai. In other rock art pictured in BAR, vertical and curvy lines may represent a staff and snake, recalling the story of Moses’ brother Aaron turning a staff into a snake as he stood before Pharaoh. Photo: Emmanuel Anati.

Having conducted more than 30 years of archaeological work on and around Har Karkom—a 2,700-foot ridge in the southern Negev—Emmanuel Anati is convinced that he has found the Biblical Mt. Sinai. At Har Karkom, Anati discovered 1,300 archaeological sites, 40,000 rock engravings and more than 120 rock cult sites. Between 4300 and 2000 B.C.E.—what Anati calls the Bronze Age Complex—Har Karkom was a religious center where the moon-god Sin was apparently worshiped. Rock art depicting ibexes, animals with crescent-shaped horns that may have symbolized the moon, are abundant. Even more intriguing, Anati believes Biblical motifs are represented on some of the rock art. It was Har Karkom, Anati suggests, that the Biblical authors envisioned when they referred to Mt. Sinai. One major obstacle to this conclusion, Shanks notes, is that the religious center at Har Karkom flourished at least 800 years earlier than the traditional date of the Exodus. Emmanuel Anati prososes that the Exodus should be re-dated to the late third or early second millennium—if the Exodus, as described in the Bible, occurred at all. Anati believes the Biblical authors had been inspired by Har Karkom regardless.

Watch Emmanuel Anati’s lecture “Har Karkom: Archaeological Discoveries on a Holy Mountain in the Desert of Exodus” and other full-length lectures from the Out of Egypt: Israel’s Exodus Between Text and Memory, History and Imagination conference, which addressed some of the most challenging issues in Exodus scholarship. The international conference was hosted by Calit2’s Qualcomm Institute at UC San Diego in San Diego, CA.

Shanks proposes that we reexamine another theory: the “Midianite Hypothesis.” According to this theory, Mt. Sinai was not in the Sinai Peninsula, but in Midian in northwest Saudi Arabia. In the Bible, Moses fled to Midian after escaping Egypt (Exodus 2:15). While tending to the flock of Jethro, the priest of Midian who became Moses’ father-in-law, Moses came to “the Mountain of God” (Mt. Horeb–one of two names for the Mountain of God in the Bible) and there received God’s call to take the Israelites out of Egypt (Exodus 3:1,17). In contrast to the archaeologically empty Sinai during the traditional date of the Exodus, the region of northwest Saudi Arabia was thriving in the 12th century—as attested by the proliferation of Midianite ware, pottery associated with the Midianites. This distinctive painted ware had even made its way north to an Egyptian temple at Timna in the Negev Desert—but not into the Sinai.

The location of Mt. Sinai continues to be debated in scholarship. BAS Library Members: Read more about the evidence at Har Karkom and in Saudi Arabia in the full article “Where Is Mount Sinai? The Case for Har Karkom and the Case for Saudia Arabia” by Hershel Shanks as it appeared in the March/April 2014 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.

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This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on February 14 2014.


Related reading in Bible History Daily:

The Exodus: Fact or Fiction?

Exodus in the Bible and the Egyptian Plagues

Who Was Moses? Was He More than an Exodus Hero?

Akhenaten and Moses

Out of Egypt: Israel’s Exodus Between Text and Memory, History and Imagination

Excruciating Exodus Movie Exudes Errors

Does the Merneptah Stele Contain the First Mention of Israel?


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  • Patrick says

    #3 Jonathon you are correct. More people need to see their evidence….once you see the barb wire, and the warning signs it pretty much down hill from there.

  • Gary says

    Exodus 19:1,2:
    In the third month of the Going Out,
    Of the sons of Israel From the land of Egypt –
    In this very day –
    They Have Come, Into the Wilderness of Sin.
    And they Journey, From Rephidim –
    And they Enter, the Wilderness of Sin –
    And they Encamp, In the Wilderness;
    And Israel Encampeth –
    There, Before the Mount.

    This, is on the 60th day after Crossing Over of the muddy branch of the Nile in the Delta – Which surrounds – With its splitting into the four main threads of the time – What the confederation of oppressed Canaanites Tribes viewed to be, the northern part of the land of Cush. The land symbolized by the bee, and by the cow, and by the serpent…

    Immediately after Passover, is when the windy season generally begins, in Egypt.

    I always look to the Akkadian, for the nuances of Hebrew word meanings…

    For Rephidim?

    Rapasu(m), in Akkadian, refers to wideness; expanses. It also refers to beating; threshing. Also, to become broad; to expand; be wide; great; broad; extended.

    Rappasu, is very wide.

    Rapadu(m), is to roam, to wander – Especially in the outback – The desert.

    Don’t you see?

    Yes, Rephidim, is a place. For it is the plural, of the wide, expansive places –

    Which are the Desert of the Moon, and the deserts and mountains beyond it.

    Just saying…

    60 days past the Sea of Reeds, the wandering in the desert, takes you to where?

    Midian, is a journey of about 425 miles, using the easiest route out of the Delta and along the coast toward the Dead Sea, then southward, into Midian. As sheep graze at about 5.6 miles per day?

    This would be about 76 days, if the sheep were left to just graze along…

    But if you were cutting across the desert, below the Promised Land, west of the Negev?

    You would shorten this journey, to about 345 miles – About 62 days, at 5.6 miles per day.

    Anyway – It all works, for me…

    Make of it, what you will.

  • loreen says

    If you really want to know where Mt Sinai is just google “Dr Kim and Jebel lawz.Scroll down and watch the video.
    You will be amazed!!!

  • mike says

    So amazing to me.. how quickly people will chose to not believe the Bible.. Simply because they “don’t have enough evidence..”? If the first verse is true, then how come so many have such a hard time with the rest of it? Lol, and as far as “evidence”, there is so much, for so much of what has been written.. time would fail me here.. Wow it’s a complete miracle for instance, that anyone here, evem knows a Jewish person.. The Bible is so amazing awesome 🙂 I love it how it’s always showing itself correct in all ways.. over all decades.. it will only continue to do so 🙂

  • Maureen says

    Not being an archaeologist this may seem ignorant. I disagree with the man that said that Mount Sinai was in Arabia just because Paul said so. Remember that when he wrote this, Arabia did indeed lay claim to the Sinai….until 106 AD which was during Paul’s life time. Median on very old biblical maps did lay claim to the eastern areas of the Sinai from Ezion Geber to the southern tip of the Sinai…an area maybe 30-45 miles wide. Personally I will go with Jebel el Tarif…it is the right distance from the starting point, and the right number of days to get to Kadesh.

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