Searching for Biblical Mt. Sinai

The case for Har Karkom in the Negev and the case for Saudi Arabia

Emmanuel Anati stands before Har Karkom, a ridge in the Negev that he believes inspired the Biblical Mt. Sinai. Photo: Hershel Shanks.

Where is Mt. Sinai? At a 2013 colloquium in Israel, an international group of scholars debated the question. At the center of the debate was Har Karkom, a mountain ridge in the Negev Desert that archaeologist Emmanuel Anati believes to be the Biblical Mt. Sinai. Or could Mt. Sinai be in Saudia Arabia, where Moses was thought to have fled after escaping Egypt? In “Where Is Mount Sinai? The Case for Har Karkom and the Case for Saudia Arabia” in the March/April 2014 issue of BAR, Hershel Shanks examines these candidates.

Biblical Mt. Sinai has never been identified archaeologically with any scholarly consensus, though several sites have been considered. According to Shanks, none of the scholars who attended the colloquium in Israel discussed the traditional location of Mt. Sinai—the mountain called Jebel Musa looming over St. Catherine’s Monastery in the southern Sinai. Jebel Musa’s identification as Mt. Sinai developed in the early Byzantine period with the spread of monasticism into the Sinai desert. Curiously, no Exodus-related archaeological remains have been recovered in the Sinai Peninsula—through which the Israelites must have traveled out of Egypt—dating to the traditional period of the Exodus, around 1200 B.C.E.

In the free eBook Ancient Israel in Egypt and the Exodus, top scholars discuss the historical Israelites in Egypt and archaeological evidence for and against the historicity of the Exodus.

An abundance of rock art can be found at Har Karkom, including some that Emmanuel Anati interprets as Biblical motifs. A rectangular grid divided into ten spaces suggests the Ten Commandments Moses received on Mt. Sinai. In other rock art pictured in BAR, vertical and curvy lines may represent a staff and snake, recalling the story of Moses’ brother Aaron turning a staff into a snake as he stood before Pharaoh. Photo: Emmanuel Anati.

Having conducted more than 30 years of archaeological work on and around Har Karkom—a 2,700-foot ridge in the southern Negev—Emmanuel Anati is convinced that he has found the Biblical Mt. Sinai. At Har Karkom, Anati discovered 1,300 archaeological sites, 40,000 rock engravings and more than 120 rock cult sites. Between 4300 and 2000 B.C.E.—what Anati calls the Bronze Age Complex—Har Karkom was a religious center where the moon-god Sin was apparently worshiped. Rock art depicting ibexes, animals with crescent-shaped horns that may have symbolized the moon, are abundant. Even more intriguing, Anati believes Biblical motifs are represented on some of the rock art. It was Har Karkom, Anati suggests, that the Biblical authors envisioned when they referred to Mt. Sinai. One major obstacle to this conclusion, Shanks notes, is that the religious center at Har Karkom flourished at least 800 years earlier than the traditional date of the Exodus. Emmanuel Anati prososes that the Exodus should be re-dated to the late third or early second millennium—if the Exodus, as described in the Bible, occurred at all. Anati believes the Biblical authors had been inspired by Har Karkom regardless.

Watch Emmanuel Anati’s lecture “Har Karkom: Archaeological Discoveries on a Holy Mountain in the Desert of Exodus” and other full-length lectures from the Out of Egypt: Israel’s Exodus Between Text and Memory, History and Imagination conference, which addressed some of the most challenging issues in Exodus scholarship. The international conference was hosted by Calit2’s Qualcomm Institute at UC San Diego in San Diego, CA.

Shanks proposes that we reexamine another theory: the “Midianite Hypothesis.” According to this theory, Mt. Sinai was not in the Sinai Peninsula, but in Midian in northwest Saudi Arabia. In the Bible, Moses fled to Midian after escaping Egypt (Exodus 2:15). While tending to the flock of Jethro, the priest of Midian who became Moses’ father-in-law, Moses came to “the Mountain of God” (Mt. Horeb–one of two names for the Mountain of God in the Bible) and there received God’s call to take the Israelites out of Egypt (Exodus 3:1,17). In contrast to the archaeologically empty Sinai during the traditional date of the Exodus, the region of northwest Saudi Arabia was thriving in the 12th century—as attested by the proliferation of Midianite ware, pottery associated with the Midianites. This distinctive painted ware had even made its way north to an Egyptian temple at Timna in the Negev Desert—but not into the Sinai.

The location of Mt. Sinai continues to be debated in scholarship. Subscribers: Read more about the evidence at Har Karkom and in Saudi Arabia in the full article “Where Is Mount Sinai? The Case for Har Karkom and the Case for Saudia Arabia” by Hershel Shanks as it appeared in the March/April 2014 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.

Not a subscriber yet? Join today.

This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on February 14 2014.


Related reading in Bible History Daily:

The Exodus: Fact or Fiction?

Exodus in the Bible and the Egyptian Plagues

Who Was Moses? Was He More than an Exodus Hero?

Akhenaten and Moses

Out of Egypt: Israel’s Exodus Between Text and Memory, History and Imagination

Excruciating Exodus Movie Exudes Errors

Does the Merneptah Stele Contain the First Mention of Israel?


Posted in Exodus.

Tagged with , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Add Your Comments

6 Responses

Stay in touch with the conversation, subscribe to the RSS feed for comments on this post.

  • Martin says

    Martin: If the Bible intimates that the Israeli host were already away from capture by the Pharaoh’s hosts in pursuit of them at the time of the first ascension up the mountain by Moses, then the place where they sojourned or languished was East of the Nile. Whether the modern boundaries are those identifiable by scholars as having been those known to the chroniclers and later corroborated by scientists, the biblical account of the travelling host out of Egypt suggests the absence of any more threat
    by the Egyptian pharaoh! The Israeli host included the live stock and the humans, both subject to the will of God! Forty years in the wilderness would have necessitated
    the means for sustenance of both. How else but by the Will of Almighty God could
    such provision be supplied? I rest my case, but remain open to “the truth”! M
    November 17, 2018, 0045, 24-hour clock.

  • Joel says

    I believe what I just read above. God have mercy on those who don’t trust and believe in u Lord God. Especially the Eaties who do not believe in u. Have mercy on them Lord.

  • Steven says

    Bill, Ron Wyatt was a total fraud. Please do your homework. Your making us Christians look stupid by falling for such schticks.

    • Steven says

      And I butchered the English language in my first post. I meant “you’re.”

  • Pannobhasa says

    Seems pretty likely to me that the “original” Mt. Sinai was an erupting volcano. Burning bush, covered in smoke and fire, Israelites marching toward it following a pillar of smoke/fire in the distance, etc.

  • BILL says

    I think Ron Wyatt was right when he found it in Saudi Arabia in 1979. He said it was Jabal al Lawz. He found the altar Moses built to worship God, the one Aaron built for the golden calf worship, the rock Moses split to bring forth water, the 12 pillars Moses built for each tribe, the boundaries Moses built to keep the masses away from the mountain. There is enough grasses there to feed animals and water, it all makes sense. Also on the mountain was the cave of Elijah. The top of the mountain is all black, while the bottom is not as if blackened by fire. You split the rocks and they are only black on the outside, not inside.

  • 1 8 9 10

    Some HTML is OK

    or, reply to this post via trackback.

Send this to a friend

Hello! Your friend thought you might be interested in reading this post from
Searching for Biblical Mt. Sinai!
Here is the link:
Enter Your Log In Credentials...

Change Password