A closer look at Daphnis and Chloe in the Garden of Eden
In “Daphnis and Chloe in the Garden of Eden” in the July/August 2013 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Theodore Feder explores how a second-century pagan love story alludes to the Biblical tale of Adam and Eve. In this post, delve deeper into the story with passages from the pagan romance, their Biblical counterparts and images of artistic representations of the lovers and their idyllic garden.
Written around 200 A.D. by the Greco-Roman author Longus, Daphnis and Chloe is a pagan pastoral romance that echoes the Biblical story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Daphnis and Chloe are simple country-dwelling teenagers in love. They are the adopted children of pastoralists indentured to a far off Master. In a meadow where the couple often meet, there is an apple tree, completely bare except for one large and sweet apple hanging from the topmost twig. Daphnis climbs the tree and picks it for Chloe, to her dismay. Daphnis justifies himself, saying that if he did not pluck it, the apple would fall to the earth and be trampled by a beast or poisoned by a snake.
In spite of some variations, all the principal elements of the Genesis story of Adam and Eve are included in Longus’s Daphnis and Chloe. There are male and female counterparts, the tree and the fruit in the Edenic setting and even an ominous mention of a snake. It is likely that Longus knew some version of the Genesis story, whether by first or second hand. As Theodore Feder writes, Daphnis and Chloe is an example of how “stories of the Jews and early Christians were becoming part of the general cultural inventory of the time.”
Read passages from Longus’s text below (translated by Ronald McCail) alongside their Biblical counterparts to see how Daphnis and Chloe draws from the Genesis story of Adam and Eve. And enjoy our collection of artistic depictions of Daphnis and Chloe in their idyllic world. We include pieces by Marc Chagall, Francois Boucher, Louis Hersent and Francois Gerard.
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All text from Longus’s Daphnis and Chloe are from the excellent translation by Ronald McCail (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002).
There stood an apple-tree, all picked, with neither fruit nor leaf remaining; bare were all its boughs; yet one apple still hung ripening atop the very topmost twig, an apple large and lovely, which by itself surpassed the sweet scent of its whole clan. He feared to go up there, the harvester, nor had he taken heed to reach it down—perhaps some power was guarding it, that apple fair, for a love-struck shepherd.
When Daphnis saw the apple, he made to go up and pluck it, and took no notice of Chloe when she tried to hold him back. Whereupon she, ignored, went angrily away to the sheep and goats; but Daphnis quickly clambered up the tree and succeeded in plucking the apple and bringing it down as a gift for Chloe, and made this speech to the wrathful girl:
With these words he placed the apple in her bosom, and when he came close she kissed him, so that Daphnis was not sorry that he had risked climbing to such a height. For the kiss that he got was better than even a golden apple.
The LORD God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to till it and keep it. And the LORD God commanded the man, ‘You may freely eat of every tree of the garden; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die.’
Now the serpent was more crafty than any other wild animal that the LORD God had made. He said to the woman, ‘Did God say, “You shall not eat from any tree in the garden”?’ The woman said to the serpent, ‘We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden; but God said, “You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden, nor shall you touch it, or you shall die.”’ But the serpent said to the woman, ‘You will not die; for God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.’ So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate; and she also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate. Then the eyes of both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made loincloths for themselves.
True, they were weeping for fear of their master; but even a complete stranger would have wept, had he chanced on such a sight.
They heard the sound of the LORD God walking in the garden at the time of the evening breeze, and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God among the trees of the garden.
This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on June 12, 2013.
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To JAllan: In case of apple your explanation is quite ingenious , but it cannot be applied to lemon. Ancient Greek for “lemon” is “kitrios” or “kitron”. Both words are derived from Latin “citrus”. They cannot be found in Ancient Greek Bible (Septuaginta or LXX). The earliest author who used word “kitrion” is Josephus Flavius (Antiq. lib. XIII, ch. XIII, 5). The term “evil” used in LXX in connection of tree of knowledge is “poneros” – not like “kitrion” or “kitros” at all. Cypriots’s language is Greek so there is no need in checking Aramaic.
I am not sure exactly how it came to be called an apple in the European tradition, but I have a pet theory that, when the story was translated into Latin, this created a pun on the word for evil: “fructus arboris scientiae bonae et mali” (the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil) could have been compressed to “fructus arboris bonae et mali” (the fruit of the tree of good and evil) and then to “fructus arboris mali” (the fruit of the tree of evil). And “malus/mali” or evil is pronounced exactly the same as “malus/mali” or apple; the apple has a long “ah” sound and evil a short one, but in common speech they sound alike, so the abbreviated phrase could be misunderstood as “the fruit of the tree of the apple” or “the fruit of the apple tree.” And since Western European traditions about the Bible come from the Latin Vulgate, the naming of the fruit as an apple would spread all over Christendom.
Perhaps someone can check whether the Greek or Aramaic words for “evil” and “lemon” are similarly pronounced, also?
The French impressionist composer Maurice Ravel created a great tone poem based on the myth of Daphnis and Chloe. One of the highlights of my youth was hearing it played live by the Budapest Symphony Orchestra on their US tour in the early ’70s. As an adherent of the Bible, I believe that other mythologies are simply corrupted memories of what actually happened in antiquity. It is helpful to trace the direction they took. I am in agreement with JoyceB on this one.
As I know, myths of a pagan antiquity often have some common traits with biblical ones. One of many possible examples: myth of delicious food or precious thing guarded by evil creature or creatures. Longus could be inspired by antic mythology and, consequently, had no need to go to Bible in search of themes, sujets and symbols. As for Clark’s suggestion about apple – belief that an apple was the unnamed fruit from Tree of Knowledge have never be universal. Cypriots e.g. believed that Eve had been tempted by a lemon.
What an excellent insight. Thank you.
This story seems to be the origin of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil being identified as an apple. The fruit is not identified in Genesis.
I agree with Lisa.
There is more literary material in BAR now that Bible Review is gone. Personally, I appreciate it.
Also, please be aware (editors) that not all subscribers are “Biblical adherents” or looking for “Biblical truths” or even unqualified “truths,” since most questions about history cannot be answered to a level of “truth.” Rather, we try to get closer to understanding aspects of the past than has been achieved previously.
I disagree, showing how fanciful artists and poets have distorted Biblical truths is definitely part of the learning process. Too often these “variations” have become modern truths, giving the impression that the Bible was derived from these stories, rather than the other way around. Please keep giving us the history of Biblical truths as well as how man has managed to muddy them up.
I agree with Bob leave fictional accounts to others this article has no place in objective research
I thought this fictional love “story” was Biblically irrelevant and more like daydreaming with past artists and storytellers. Please stay focused on Biblical Archaeology like we subscribers enjoy. Leave fiction to the multitudes of non-Biblical adherents who enjoy mind flights and pretty paintings.