Where Is Sodom?

Genesis 13, archaeology and Biblical geography provide clues

According to the Bible, “the men of Sodom were wicked” (Genesis 13, verse 13). For its many sins, God destroyed Sodom and all the inhabitants of the “cities of the plain” in an intense conflagration, but not before allowing Abraham’s nephew Lot and his family to flee to safety.

The stories of Sodom and its destruction, whether historical or not, were clearly understood to have occurred near the Dead Sea, among the so-called “cities of the plain” mentioned in Genesis 13, verse 12. But where exactly was this plain, and was a particular site associated with Sodom? In the article Where Is Sodom? in the March/April 2013 issue of BAR, archaeologist Steven Collins combines clues from Biblical geography with archaeological evidence from the site of Tall el-Hammam in Jordan to suggest that the author of Genesis 13 located Sodom in a fertile area northeast of the Dead Sea.


In the article “Where Is Sodom?” archaeologist Steven Collins, using clues from the Biblical geography of Genesis 13 together with archaeological evidence from the site of Tall el-Hammam (pictured), argues that Biblical tradition located Sodom in a fertile area northeast of the Dead Sea. Photo: Michael C. Luddeni.

So where is Sodom, according to the Biblical geography of Genesis 13? Sodom and its sister cities are located in the large oval-shaped, fertile plain just north of the Dead Sea called simply ha-kikkar, or “the Disk” (Genesis 13, verse 13). In Biblical geography, this well-watered disk-shaped plain, said to have been located east of the highland towns of Bethel and Ai, was an area “like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt” where Lot moved his family after his quarrel with Abraham (Genesis 13, verse 10). It is also the place where the Biblical writers set their dramatic tale of Sodom’s wickedness and destruction (Genesis 19).

Other than Israel, no country has as many Biblical sites and associations as Jordan: Mount Nebo, from where Moses gazed at the Promised Land; Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John baptized Jesus; Lot’s Cave, where Lot and his daughters sought refuge after the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah; and many more. Travel with us on our journey into the past in our free eBook Exploring Jordan.

Seeking to answer the question “Where is Sodom?” and using the Biblical geography of Genesis 13 as a guide, Collins decided to excavate Tall el-Hammam, an extensive and heavily fortified site located in modern Jordan at the eastern edge of the kikkar. First inhabited during the Chalcolithic period (4600–3600 B.C.E.), the site attained its maximum size during the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2000–1600 B.C.E.) and became one of the largest cities in Canaan. But unlike other Canaanite cities that continued to flourish in the Late Bronze Age (1550-1200 B.C.E.), Tall el-Hammam was destroyed by fire at the end of the Middle Bronze Age and remained uninhabited for centuries.

Read responses by scholars Bill Schlegel and Todd Bolen regarding the location of Sodom.

Across Tall el-Hammam, archaeologists found widespread evidence of an intense conflagration that left the Middle Bronze Age city in ruins. They found scorched foundations and floors buried under nearly 3 feet of dark grey ash, as well as dozens of pottery sherds covered with a frothy, “melted” surface; the glassy appearance indicates that they were briefly exposed to temperatures well in excess of 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, the approximate heat of volcanic magma. Such evidence suggests the city and its environs were catastrophically destroyed in a sudden and extreme conflagration.

Was it this event—which destroyed Hammam and the other cities of the kikkar—that was remembered by the Biblical writers in their telling of the story of Sodom?


BAS Library Members: Read the full article Where Is Sodom? by Steven Collins in Biblical Archaeology Review, March/April 2013.

Not a BAS Library member yet? Sign up today!

This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on February 20, 2013.


Related reading in Bible History Daily:

Locating Zoar
Steven Collins responds to a letter by Bill Schlegel

Arguments Against Locating Sodom at Tall el-Hammam
Todd Bolen responds to “Where is Sodom”

Abraham and Lot in the Bible

Lot’s Cave Museum at Ancient Zoar (Zoora)


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  • Manasseh says

    I am willing to share the word of Yahweh.
    Israelis didn’t keep 70 Land Sabbaths strictly from 1099 BCE to 609 BCE (5th year of the king, Solomon to the 10th year of the king, Zedekiah = 490 Luni Solar Years) according to Yahweh’s Luni Solar Calendar Formula (Lev. 25:8-9).Yahweh applied His FORMULA 10 times in 70 Weeks Prophecy. Present Jews are following inaccurate Chronology, History, and Grecian 19 – Year Cycle which is misleading all the Jews and Gentiles since CE 1948. The Word of Yahweh is now going out of spiritual Zion and Jerusalem (The Body of the Jewish Messiah) since CE 36 because of Micah 4:1-2 fulfilled already. Yahweh revealed me His Calendar Formula atlast. For details visit http://www.yahwehcalendar.com. I am willing to hear from you as we are the body of the Messiah and I need your suggestions (Jeremiah 31:31-33 cf. Romans 11:13-23; Ephesians 3:1-6, 4:11-16).
    Thank you,
    E-mail: yahwehcalendar@gmail.com
    Cell: 9704424254
    For complete solution of Yahweh’s Calendar:

  • Jeremiah says

    Ok so if God wiped this out for a reason don’t you think he doesn’t want you to find it?? Like what are you going to get out of it?? Oh yea, we are going to have tourists come and see where evil people were, “vaped,” for their sins. Let’s go to present day… Do you want to go look around in Hiroshima or Nagasaki?? Like come on man! I believe in finding things that are said in the Bible, but this might need to be just not find. My personal opinion! God Bless!

  • William says

    Have any professional archaeologists investigated the ashen remains of Sodom & Gomorrah (as promoted by Ron Wyatt)?

    • Phil says

      I do not know about tests related to Ron Wyatt, but we are testing the ashen remains recovered from Tall el-Hammam, and the results thus far are consistent with the dates proposed by Collins in his article.

  • mathe says

    The writer of this article is trying to prove that it was not God who destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah. AAA……The Bible is more believed than this article. Keep on trying to prove.

    • Phil says

      The claim that Collins is trying to prove that it was not God who destroyed Sodom is not true. There is no question that God arranged the destruction. The issue, as I approach itin my own research, is this: God is not a cosmic magician. As a theologian, I believe that He is the Creator of all things who uses his creation to accomplish his purposes. As an engineer, I want to know how He did it. To apply proper scientific methodology to answering that question does not in any way deny God’s hand in the destruction of Sodom and the cities of the plain. The material evidence is compelling. I and my research associates will be publishing our findings later this year.

    • Dan says

      mathe, you wrote, “The writer of this article is trying to prove that it was not God who destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah. AAA……The Bible is more believed than this article.”

      That is a misconstruction based on the Masoretic Hebrew text. The Septuagint (Greek Old Testament) has an Egyptian sojourn much shorter than in the MT (Exo 12:40 LXX). The Apostle Paul confirmed the LXX timeline (Gal 3:17). So did Josephus (Ant. II.15.2). In fact, if you study the lineage from the birth of Levi to Moses to the Exodus, you will find it is virtually impossible for the Israelites to have been in Egypt for the length of time claimed by the Masoretes.

  • Nathanael says

    Dear BAS Staff and readership,

    I agree with Matt and Brian (both 02/21/13) that no one who calls themselves Biblical-anything should put “whether historical or not” in their articles. Rather it should be, “whether one believes they are historical or not”. If you are Biblical, and it is in The Holy Bible, then you should know yourself it is historical.

    I also agree with Emerson and Randy (both 02/22/13) that as Christians one should never, ever, ever use BCE and CE. We believe in Jesus, and assumedly have put our trust in Him, and try to follow God’s Pure Word. We should not compromise by removing Christ from the calendar: “Before Christ” and “In the Year of Our Lord”.

    For those who are interested, I have read and written extensively on Tall el-Hammam versus what The Sacred Scriptures detail about Sodom and the other 4 Cities of the Kikkar. Dr. Collins has never given any official answer to the evidences I present, and that can only mean the arguments are air-tight. Therefore people like Krissy and Arlan may want to take a look to see if they can dismantle them, seeing as they don’t believe Genesis really happened.

    Recommended further reading with myriads of evidences against Tall el-Hammam being Sodom:

    G. M. Grena’s detailed review for The Kikkar Dialogues (Research & Discovery Series) (Volume 2) on LMLK: A Royal Blog for all matters belonging to the King, a king, &/or kings (05/25/14). Links below:

    G. M. Grena’s brief review Steven Collins, an Easter-Bunny Christian for The Kikkar Dialogues (Research & Discovery Series) (Volume 2) on Amazon (06/07/14). Link here:

    My review Not Israel’s Younger Sister for Discovering the City of Sodom: The Fascinating, True Account of the Discovery of the Old Testament’s Most Infamous City on Amazon (03/21/14). Link here:

    My review Archaeology’s War on Biblical History for The Kikkar Dialogues (Research & Discovery Series) (Volume 2) on Amazon (06/22/14). Link here:

    My 11-part response to Dr. Collins’ comments on Biblical Problems with
    Locating Sodom at Tall el-Hammam
    by Dr. Todd Bolen on his blog (08/23/14). Link to first part below, scroll down to read further:

    And lastly, search BiblePlaces.com Blog by Dr. Todd Bolen, keyword: “Sodom”. Be sure to also read the comment sections. Links to all the current blogposts, with a few other links, can be found here (02/26/13):

    Thank you for reading! ~ Nathanael “AmbassadorHerald” Eisner

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