BIBLE HISTORY DAILY

The Philistines in Jordan

Bible and archaeology news

This 200-foot-long Philistine structure in Jordan dates to 1100 B.C.E. University of Gothenburg

When we think of the Philistines, we think of the traditional foes of the Israelites. Philistine archaeology has revealed a bit more of the picture. Tell-es Safi (Biblical Gath, a major Philistine city and the hometown of Goliath) excavators Aren M. Maeir and Carl S. Ehrlich outlined Philistine history in BAR in 2001:

The Philistines were one of the Sea Peoples (as we know from an Egyptian inscription), a group of seafaring tribes that emerged in the eastern Mediterranean world at the end of the Bronze Age (1200 B.C.E.). After engaging in a number of battles with Egypt, the Philistines settled in Canaan, possibly as Egyptian mercenaries. After attempting to extend their influence farther into inland Canaan, an attempt reflected in the accounts of various battles recorded in the books of Judges and 1 Samuel, the Philistines were wedged into the southwestern coastal strip of Canaan, presumably by King David, in the early tenth century B.C.E.

Archaeology often paints a distinctively Mediterranean picture of the Philistines: three of the five cities of the Philistine “pentapolis” were located on the coast; Philistine religion shows distinct Aegean characteristics; and the Philistine marketplace at Ashkelon was situated directly on the sea, suggesting a western focus for Philistine trade.


Other than Israel, no country has as many Biblical sites and associations as Jordan: Mount Nebo, from where Moses gazed at the Promised Land; Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John baptized Jesus; Lot’s Cave, where Lot and his daughters sought refuge after the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah; and many more. Travel with us on our journey into the past in our free eBook Exploring Jordan.


Recent excavations at Tell Abu al-Kharaz in Jordan, a site associated with the Biblical city Jabesh Gilead where Saul and David fought the Philistines and Ammonites, have pulled focus on the Philistines back away from the seashore. Swedish University of Gothenburg archaeologists excavated a 200-foot-long structure dating to around 1100 B.C.E., shortly after the Bronze Age collapse—an event often associated with the emigration of the Philistines to the Levant.

As archaeologist Peter M. Fischer told phys.org, “We have evidence that culture from present Europe is represented in Tell Abu al-Kharaz. A group of the Sea Peoples of European descent, Philistines, settled down in the city … we have, for instance, found pottery resembling corresponding items from Greece and Cyprus in terms of form and decoration, and also cylindrical loom weights for textile production that could be found in central and south-east Europe around the same time.”

While the excavations have uncovered evidence of occupation reaching back to the fourth millennium B.C.E., the multi-story Philistine structure is the one reshaping our view of the orientation of Jordanian culture. The Gothenburg excavations remind archaeologists that Mediterranean archaeology provides integral context for ancient Jordanian material culture.

Read more in phys.org.


Learn about the tribes of Sea Peoples who settled in northern Canaan in “The ‘Philistines’ to the North” in Bible History Daily.


Explore the Philistines in the BAS Library

Trude Dothan, “What We Know About the Philistines,” BAR, Jul/Aug 1982.

Tristan Barako, “One if by Sea…Two if by Land: How Did the Philistines Get to Canaan?: How Did the Philistines Get to Canaan? One: by Sea,” BAR, Mar/Apr 2003.

Assaf Yassar-Landau, “One if by Sea…Two if by Land: How Did the Philistines Get to Canaan?: How Did the Philistines Get to Canaan? Two: by Land,” BAR, Mar/Apr 2003.

Carl S. Ehrlich and Aren M. Maeir, “Excavating Philistine Gath: Have We Found Goliath’s Hometown?BAR, Nov/Dec 2001.

Aren M. Maeir, “Prize Find: Horned Altar from Tell es-Safi Hints at Philistine Origins,” BAR, Jan/Feb 2012.

Aren M. Maeir, “Did Captured Ark Afflict Philistines with E.D.?,” BAR, May/June 2008.

Trude Dothan, “Philistine Fashion,” BAR, Nov/Dec 2003.

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5 Responses

  1. gustavob3 says:

    Velikovsky, seriously?

    1. Harry says:

      Please do not snob. Dr Velikovsky may have been too over-imaginative, but on certain key points was right on.

  2. Varghese says:

    “It is more than probable that the Kreti of the “Kreti and Pleti”
    (Cherethites and Pelethites) bodyguard of David (II Samuel 8:18),
    led by his marshal Benaiah, were the same Kari In one place in the
    Scriptures (II Samuel 20:23) it is said that Benaiah was in command
    of Kari (or Kre) and Pleti. The Philistines, since days of old,
    have been considered the Kreti-Pleti. The word “Pleti” is generally
    regarded as a shortened form of “Philistines,” and without sufficient
    ground they have been presumed to be the same people as the Kreti,
    and thus originated the theory that the Philistines came from
    Crete.17 Pleti cannot be identical with Kreti or Kari, because whenever
    they are mentioned the two names are always connected by
    “and.”” —- Quote from Ages in Chaos by Dr. Velikovsky

  3. Varghese says:

    As per the Hebrew bible Philistines descended from Egypt not Europe: “Egypt fathered ……., the Casluhites (from which came the Philistines),..!.” (Gen 10:13)

    1. Harry says:

      The Egyptians did defeat the Peleset (=Invaders), who then settled in the Gat-Gaza region.
      Who the Casluhites were is totally unclear. The fact Kings Saul and David faught the Philistines in the north, both in Gilad and Jezreel (near Gina=Jenin) – Mt. Gilboa, indicates the Philistine alliance had migrated from sites in Anatolia and eastern Mediterranean. It is quite unclear if these movements of peoples occurred one time (e.g. end of Bronze Age) or twice (the first time having been after the eruption of Thera-Santorini, which is when I place Exodus). The two waves would tally well with the rest of what we think we know. It also would give a measure of explanation why the mixed tribe of Dan would choose to migrate to just north of the Hule Valley and close to Geshur just northeast of Lake Kinneret. For the curious, I suspect the Geshurites were related to peoples from the Ionian area. Yes I am quite aware all this has implications about the tribal identity of David and his House.

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5 Responses

  1. gustavob3 says:

    Velikovsky, seriously?

    1. Harry says:

      Please do not snob. Dr Velikovsky may have been too over-imaginative, but on certain key points was right on.

  2. Varghese says:

    “It is more than probable that the Kreti of the “Kreti and Pleti”
    (Cherethites and Pelethites) bodyguard of David (II Samuel 8:18),
    led by his marshal Benaiah, were the same Kari In one place in the
    Scriptures (II Samuel 20:23) it is said that Benaiah was in command
    of Kari (or Kre) and Pleti. The Philistines, since days of old,
    have been considered the Kreti-Pleti. The word “Pleti” is generally
    regarded as a shortened form of “Philistines,” and without sufficient
    ground they have been presumed to be the same people as the Kreti,
    and thus originated the theory that the Philistines came from
    Crete.17 Pleti cannot be identical with Kreti or Kari, because whenever
    they are mentioned the two names are always connected by
    “and.”” —- Quote from Ages in Chaos by Dr. Velikovsky

  3. Varghese says:

    As per the Hebrew bible Philistines descended from Egypt not Europe: “Egypt fathered ……., the Casluhites (from which came the Philistines),..!.” (Gen 10:13)

    1. Harry says:

      The Egyptians did defeat the Peleset (=Invaders), who then settled in the Gat-Gaza region.
      Who the Casluhites were is totally unclear. The fact Kings Saul and David faught the Philistines in the north, both in Gilad and Jezreel (near Gina=Jenin) – Mt. Gilboa, indicates the Philistine alliance had migrated from sites in Anatolia and eastern Mediterranean. It is quite unclear if these movements of peoples occurred one time (e.g. end of Bronze Age) or twice (the first time having been after the eruption of Thera-Santorini, which is when I place Exodus). The two waves would tally well with the rest of what we think we know. It also would give a measure of explanation why the mixed tribe of Dan would choose to migrate to just north of the Hule Valley and close to Geshur just northeast of Lake Kinneret. For the curious, I suspect the Geshurites were related to peoples from the Ionian area. Yes I am quite aware all this has implications about the tribal identity of David and his House.

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