Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Shorts, Episode 4
Any time that a character in the Bible discovers, accesses, or writes a book, it’s significant. Yet are these mentions of media about an actual text or a tool for establishing the emerging authority of a tradition?
For example, Hilkiah’s discovery of “a book of the law” tucked away in the Temple (2 Kings 22:8), Jeremiah and Baruch’s tag-team to pen a set of scroll oracles against the king (Jer 36:2, 28-32), or Ezra’s unravelling and reading “a book of the law of Moses” (Neh 8:1) all connect us to important questions about the anchors of authority for developing ancestral traditions.
In such instances, our modern, Western minds default to thinking about what text was discovered. Did Hilkiah discover Deuteronomy? Were Baruch’s scrolls copies of the book of Jeremiah? Was Ezra reading from the Pentateuch?
These are all valid questions and important ones to ask as we explore the back story of emerging Hebrew Scripture. Yet, in most cases, we should also inquire about how the authority of a tradition—whatever form it took—is less rooted in a text, per se, but in the personae associated with them.
From this perspective, Josiah and Ezra extend and elevate the authority of Mosaic tradition. Baruch and Jeremiah’s two scrolls associate the prophet with textuality, scribalism, and revelation. In these ways, when texts, books, scrolls, and writings turn up in biblical narratives, most often they claim authority for a tradition in the name of a famed figure of importance.
By the Second Temple period, scribes and communities increasingly look to scriptures to form and maintain their identities. Strategies for claiming authority, then, for writings penned in this period are key.
While the Aramaic Dead Sea Scrolls draw upon and extend the authority of a variety of traditions in the Hebrew Scriptures, a common feature was casting figures or setting scenes where ancient or otherworldly “books” turn up in the hands of a lead character. To read, write, or reveal something from such materials was a way of claiming fresh insight from a distant past or world as well as dropping an anchor for authority.
The Genesis Apocryphon from Qumran Cave One deploys this strategy. In this episode of Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Shorts, we explore the significance and impact of Abraham reading and teaching from an Enochic book while sojourning in Egypt. Turns out, this is not only a claim to the antiquity and authority of his special knowledge, but a not-so-subtle jab at the intellectual culture of the Egyptians. As we’ll see, for Genesis Apocryphon, the nomad schools his nemesis!
The Aramaic Afterlives of Genesis’s Giants The mention of giants before the flood in Genesis 6:4 has been both a source of imagination and interpretation down through the centuries. This curious passage, however, was the departure point for Aramaic exegesis that answered the question of the origins and end of all evil.
What is Pseudepigraphy and How Did It Shape Scripture? There are many voices in scripture, yet seldom do we hear that of scribes. One strategy ancient Jewish scribes used to transmit and create works was the practice of pseudepigraphy. What was it, how did it work, and why did it breathe new life into overlooked biblical characters?
Aramaic Biographies of Angels and Demons Part of the challenge and opportunity of studying the Bible is that, while it often feels familiar, it comes from a foreign context. The texts and traditions of scripture come from ancient cultures, people, places, and even languages that are lost to most modern minds.
We invite you to join The Biblical Archaeology Society from May 10 – 16, 2020 for expert Biblical scholarship, wonderful company and Southern relaxation at the Montreat Conference Center, nestled in the hills of North Carolina. Drs. James Tabor and April DeConick will present Excavating Forgotten, Misrepresented, and Marginalized Figures of Earliest Christianity, a series of 20 lectures.
The world of the Bible is knowable. We can learn about the society where the ancient Israelites, and later Jesus and the Apostles, lived through the modern discoveries that provide us clues.
Biblical Archaeology Review is the guide on that fascinating journey. Here is your ticket to join us as we discover more and more about the biblical world and its people.
Each issue of Biblical Archaeology Review features lavishly illustrated and easy-to-understand articles such as:
• Fascinating finds from the Hebrew Bible and New Testament periods
• The latest scholarship by the world's greatest archaeologists and distinguished scholars
• Stunning color photographs, informative maps, and diagrams
• BAR's unique departments
• Reviews of the latest books on biblical archaeology
The BAS Digital Library includes:
• 45+ years of Biblical Archaeology Review
• 20+ years of Bible Review online, providing critical interpretations of biblical texts
• 8 years of Archaeology Odyssey online, exploring the ancient roots of the Western world in a scholarly and entertaining way,
• The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land
• Video lectures from world-renowned experts.
• Access to 50+ curated Special Collections,
• Four highly acclaimed books, published in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution: Aspects of Monotheism, Feminist Approaches to the Bible, The Rise of Ancient Israel and The Search for Jesus.
The All-Access membership pass is the way to get to know the Bible through biblical archaeology.
Sign up to receive our email newsletter and never miss an update.