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Caves and Contents (Cave 4)

THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS AND WHY THEY MATTER

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Caves and Contents

 

Cave 4

The mother lode of manuscript fragments. Cave 4 was found in August 1952 by Bedouin exploring literally right under the noses of the archaeologists excavating Qumran on the plateau above. The cave contained 575 manuscripts, most of them in tatters, including parts of Biblical and apocryphal books, Biblical commentaries, works on Jewish law, prayers and sectarian documents. Due to their poorly preserved state, the fragments from Cave 4 were generally the most difficult to decipher and translate.
 
Further Reading

4Q184: Beware the Wiles of the Wanton Woman, Biblical Archaeology Review 9:04, Jul/Aug 1983, By Magen Broshi and The Seductress of Qumran, Bible Review 17:05, Oct 2001

4Q285: A Pierced or Piercing Messiah?—The Verdict Is Still Out, Biblical Archaeology Review 18:06, Nov/Dec 1992, by James D. Tabor and The “Pierced Messiah” Text—An Interpretation Evaporates, Biblical Archaeology Review 18:04, Jul/Aug 1992

4Q395: For This You Waited 35 Years, Biblical Archaeology Review 20:06, Nov/Dec 1994

4Q445: Who Was He? Rare DSS Text Mentions King Jonathan, Biblical Archaeology Review 20:01, Jan/Feb 1994, by Esther Eshel, Hanan Eshel and Ada Yardeni

4Q521: The Messiah at Qumran, Biblical Archaeology Review 18:06, Nov/Dec 1992, By James D. Tabor and Michael O. Wise

4Q541: The Suffering Servant at Qumran, Bible Review 9:06, Dec 1993, By John J. Collins

4Q550: Has Every Book of the Bible Been Found Among the Dead Sea Scrolls?, Bible Review 12:05, Oct 1996, By Sidnie White Crawford

Contents found in Cave 4:
4Q11 Paleo-Genesis- /Exodus  4Q247 Apocalypse of Weeks? 4Q414 Baptismal liturgy
4Q12 Paleo- Genesis 4Q248 Acts of a Greek King 4Q415-419 Sapiential work
4Q415-419 Exodus 4Q250 Midrash Sefer Mosheh 4Q420-421 Ways of Righteous- ness
4Q22 Paleo-Exodus 4Q251 Halakhah 4Q422 Paraphrase of Genesis Exodus
4Q23 Leviticus-Numbers 4Q252 Commentary of Genesis A 4Q423-426 Sapiential work
4Q24-26b Leviticus 4Q253 Commentary of Genesis B 4Q427-433 Hodayot
4Q27 Numbers 4Q255-264 Community Rule 4Q434 Barkhi Nafshi
4Q28-44 Deuteronomy 4Q265 Serekh Damascus 4Q434a Grace?
4Q45-46 Paleo-Deuter- onomy 4Q265-273 Damascus Document 4Q435-438 Barkhi Nafshi
4Q47-48 Joshua 4Q274-283 Purification Rules 4Q439 Similar to Barkhi Nafshi
4Q49-50 Judges 4Q284 Rule of Menstruating Women 4Q440 Hodayot-like text
4Q51-53 Samuel 4Q285 War Rule 4Q441-444 Prayers
4Q54 Kings 4Q286-290 Berakhot 4Q445-447 poetics
4Q55-69 Isaiah 4Q291-293 Prayers 4Q448 Apocryphal Psalms & Prayer
4Q70-72 Jeremiah 4Q294-297 Rules and Euchologies? 4Q449-457 Prayers
4Q73-75 Ezekiel 4Q298 Words of a Sage 4Q458 narrative
4Q76-82 Minor Prophets 4Q299-301 Mysteries 4Q459-460 Pseudo- graphical work
4Q83-98 Psalms 4Q302 Praise of God 4Q461-463 narrative
4Q99-100 Job 4Q303-305 Creation Meditation 4Q464 Exposition on the Patriarchs
4Q101 Paleo-Job 4Q306 People Who Err 4Q464a-465 unclassified
4Q102-103 Proverbs 4Q307 Sapiential work 4Q469 Narrative 1
4Q104-105 Ruth 4Q308 Sapiential work 4Q470 Zedekiah
4Q106-108 Canticles 4Q309 Cursive work 4Q471 War Scroll- like text
4Q109-110 Ecclesiastes 4Q310-311 unclassified 4Q471a Polemics
4Q111 Lamen- tations 4Q312 Hebrew text 4Q471b Prayer of Michael
4Q112-116 Daniel 4Q313 unclassified 4Q472 Sapiential work
4Q117 Ezra 4Q314-315 blank parchment 4Q473 The Two Ways
4Q118 Chronicles 4Q316 unclassified 4Q474-476a Sapiential work
4Q119 Septuagint Leviticus 4Q317 Phases of the Moon 4Q477 Rebukes of the Overseer
4Q120 Septuagint Leviticus 4Q318 Zodiology 4Q478 fragment
4Q121 Septuagint Numbers 4Q319 Otot 4Q479-481f unclassified
4Q122 Septuagint Deute- ronomy 4Q320-330 Calendrical documents 4Q482 Jubliees?
4Q123 Paleo-Joshua 4Q331-333 historical work 4Q483 Genesis of Jubilees?
4Q124-126 unclassified 4Q334 Ordinances 4Q484 Judah?
4Q127 Greek paraphrase Exodus 4Q335-336 Astronomical fragments 4Q485 Prophecy
4Q128-148 Phylactery 4Q337 Calendrical documents 4Q486-487 Sapiential work
4Q149-155 Mezuzot 4Q338 geneaology 4Q488 Apocyphon
4Q156 Targum of Leviticus 4Q339 list of false prophets 4Q489 Apocalypse
4Q157 Targum of Job 4Q340 list of netinim 4Q490 Aramaic papyrus
4Q158 paraphrases 4Q341 list of proper names 4Q491-497 The War Scroll
4Q159 Ordinances 4Q342 letter 4Q498 Sapiential work
4Q160 Vision of Samuel 4Q343 letter 4Q499 Hymns
4Q161-165 Pesher Isaiah 4Q344 acknow- ledgement of debt 4Q500 Benediction
4Q166-167 Pesher Hosiah 4Q345 bill of sale 4Q501 Apocyrphal Lamen- tations
4Q168 Pesher Micah 4Q346 bill of sale 4Q502 Ritual of Marriage
4Q169 Pesher Nahum 4Q347 Aramaic papyrus 4Q503 Daily Prayers
4Q170 Pesher Zephaniah 4Q348-4Q358 Accounting documents 4Q504-506 Words of the Luminaries
4Q171 Pesher Psalms 4Q359 list of names 4Q507-509 Festival Prayers
4Q172 unidentified pesher 4Q360 Writing Exercise 4Q510-511 songs of the sage
4Q173 Pesher Psalms 4Q361 scribbles on papyrus 4Q512 Ritual of Purification
4Q1474 Florilegium 4Q362-3 undeciph- ered 4Q513-514 Ordinaces
4Q175 Testimonia 4Q364-365 Pentateuch reworked 4Q515-520 unclassified
4Q176 Tanhumim 4Q365a Temple Scroll? 4Q521 Messianic Apocalypse
4Q177 Catena 4Q366-367 Pentateuch reworked 4Q522 Place Names
4Q178 unclassified 4Q368 Apocryphal Pentateuch 4Q523 Hebrew text
4Q179 Apocryphal Lamen- tations 4Q369 Prayer of Enosh 4Q524 halakhic text
4Q180-181 Ages of Creation 4Q370 Flood Apocryphon 4Q525 Wisdom with Beautitudes
4Q182 Catena 4Q371-3 Joseph Apocryphon 4Q526-528 Hebrew fragments
4Q183 historical work 4Q374 Exodus commentary 4Q529 Words of Micahel
4Q184 Wiles of the Wicked Woman 4Q375-377 Moses Apocryphon 4Q530-532 Books of Giants
4Q185 Sapiential work 4Q378-379 Joshua Apocryphon 4Q533 Giants or Pseudo Enoch
4Q186 Horoscope 4Q380-381 Noncanonical Psalms 4Q534 Elect of God
4Q196-200 Tobit 4Q382 Paraphases of Kings 4Q535 Aramaic N
4Q201-212 Various Enoch 4Q383-384 Apocryphon of Jeremiah 4Q536 Aramaic C
4Q213-214 Levi 4Q385 Pseudo Ezekial 4Q537 Apocryphon of- Jacob
4Q215 Testament of Naphtali 4Q385a Pseudo Moses 4Q538 Apocryphon of- Judah
4Q216-228 various Jubilees 4Q385b Apocryphon of- Jeremiah 4Q539 Apocryphon- of Joseph
4Q229 Pseudo- graphiic work 4Q386-387 Pseudo Ezekial 4Q540-451 Levi?
4Q230-231 Catalog of Spirits 4Q387a Pseudo Moses 4Q542 Testament of Qahat
4Q232 New Jerusalem 4Q387b Apocryphon of Jeremiah 4Q543-548 Visions of Amram
4Q233 Place names fragments 4Q388 Pseudo Ezekial 4Q549 Hur and Miriam
4Q234 Genesis 20:27f 4Q388a-389 Pseudo Moses 4Q550 Ester?
4Q235 Kings 4Q389a Apocryphon of Jeremiah 4Q551 Daniel Susanna
4Q236 Psalm 89 4Q390 Pseudo Moses 4Q552-553 Four Kingdoms
4Q237-238 unclassified 4Q391 Pseudo Ezekial 4Q554-555 New Jerusalem
4Q239 Pesher on the True Israel 4Q392-393 Liturgical Work 4Q556-558 Visions of Amram
4Q240 Pesher Canticles? 4Q394-399 MMT 4Q559 Biblical Chronology
4Q241 Lamen- tations 4Q400-407 Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice 4Q560 Proverbs
4Q242 Prayers of Nabonidus 4Q408 Sapiential work 4Q561 Horoscope
4Q243-245 Pseudo-Daniel 4Q409 Liturgical Work 4Q562-575 Aramaic Texts

 

Sources

Vermes, Geza. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. New York: Penguin Press, 1997.

Schiffman, Lawrence and VanderKam, James. The Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

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1 Responses

  1. Israel says:

    We would rather not go through your commentary and interpretation of what is on these scrolls.

    How about letting the text lead the people. Your egos destroy the vital elements needed to seek the Kingdom.

    It’s redundant and counterproductive to have to tread through the misery of your bored thoughts to get to the vital elements of what we have come to enyoy: SOME TRUTH WITHOUT THE CORRUPTION OF IGNORANT, or DECEPTIVE PEOPLE

Write a Reply or Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


1 Responses

  1. Israel says:

    We would rather not go through your commentary and interpretation of what is on these scrolls.

    How about letting the text lead the people. Your egos destroy the vital elements needed to seek the Kingdom.

    It’s redundant and counterproductive to have to tread through the misery of your bored thoughts to get to the vital elements of what we have come to enyoy: SOME TRUTH WITHOUT THE CORRUPTION OF IGNORANT, or DECEPTIVE PEOPLE

Write a Reply or Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


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