After participating in the Tell Qasile excavations, Miriam worked for the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums (now the Israel Antiquities Authority, or IAA), excavating at Rosh Haniqra and Beth Yerah. She and Hayim also spent two years (1955–1957) at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, where she studied Mesopotamian and Egyptian archaeology. Her research focused on ancient art, especially of the Chalcolithic and Late Bronze Age.
She started her nearly 40-year curatorial career at the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums. With a UNESCO scholarship, she studied at several museums in London. She was then appointed to the steering committee that planned the archaeological galleries of the newly established Israel Museum, and when the museum opened in 1965, Tadmor stayed on as curator of the early periods. In 1973 she was appointed chief curator of archaeology at the museum.
Following her retirement in 1991, Tadmor was named coeditor of the Israel Exploration Journal, a post she held at her death.
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