Labor in Monastic Rules of St. Shenoute (4th-5th century C.E.)
“And together, all shall submit to the one who is in charge of them, with all submissiveness and all propriety, in what he directs them to do, without murmuring and blaming, knowing that they have been assigned to him by whoever instructs them.”
—Shenoute of Atripe (Rule #555)
This is one of the hundreds of monastic rules that have been preserved in the writings of Shenoute of Atripe (347–465), a great Christian leader in late antique Egypt. An abbot of the famous White Monastery and a head for many years of the monastic federation near the modern city of Sohag in southern Egypt, Apa (or, Father) Shenoute is one of the most influential figures of early monasticism. In his leadership role during the formative decades of Christian communal (cenobitic) monasticism, Shenoute authored or adapted rules that governed every possible aspect of monastic life. These rules did not survive as a single work but are found scattered in Shenoute’s eight-volume opus known as the Canons (composed in his native Coptic Egyptian), which only now is being systematically studied and published.
Shenoute’s monastic rules are among the most ancient ones, as some of them were produced only a generation after the oldest known monastic rules, composed by Pachomius in the second quarter of the fourth century. Addressing a wide range of situations and topics, these rules, commands, and wishes provide intimate access to the workings of the monastic federation and daily lives of its members.
As a great deal of Coptic monks’ daily lives revolved around manual labor, many of the rules relate to work. Writing for the Fall 2020 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Dana Robinson focuses on what Shenoute’s rules reveal about the monastic lived experience as related to work and how monastic ideals about work were put into practice. Because these rules survive embedded in Shenoute’s sermons and letters that compose his Canons, they often appear in the context of a specific real-life situation. A researcher of food, work, and religion in late antiquity, Robinson in her article “Monks at Work: Ideals and Reality in Early Egyptian Monasticism,” tries to integrate these written sources with archaeological data obtained through recent excavations at the White Monastery.
“Abbot Shenoute’s strategies of control over the working environment and workforce (the monks) show that he was conscious of the possibilities of the monastery as a communicative landscape centered on labor,” writes Robinson. “Some of his regulations may seem like inefficient economic choices, but the “real” product of monastic labor—from the perspective of ascetic theologians, such as Shenoute—is the person of the monk him- or herself: humble, obedient, and spiritually focused.”
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To learn about the kinds of physical work performed at the White Monastery, the social effects of labor organization, monastic economy, and the spiritual aspects of work regulations, read Dana Robinson’s article “Monks at Work: Ideals and Reality in Early Egyptian Monasticism,” published in the Fall 2020 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.
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Monastic Views of Work by Peter Brown. Because of our Western orientation, we often lose sight of the fact that, from the third to the sixth century A.D., the eastern half of the Roman Empire was backed by a buoyant economy; a world that we now associate with dry deserts dotted with ancient ruins was thriving.1 The Roman Empire that the great British historian Edward Gibbon described in his monumental History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (first appeared in 1776) was declining mostly in the West. In the East, the Roman Empire was still alive and well.
The Book of Hours: The medievel best seller by Roger S. Wieck. It has long been a truism that the Bible is the most-published book in the history of Western culture. But for almost 250 years, from about 1275 to 1525, Books of Hours (illuminated prayer books whose heart is a series of prayers devoted to the Virgin Mary) were the medieval best sellers.
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