Who Were the Ammonites, Moabites and Edomites in the Bible?

Ancient Israel’s neighbors east of the Jordan

amman-king

Standing more than 6.5 feet tall and dating to the Iron Age, this statue of an Ammonite king was uncovered in 2010 at Amman, Jordan. Photo: Joel S. Burnett

jordan-mapWho were the Ammonites, Moabites and Edomites in the Bible?

When the kingdoms of Israel and Judah controlled the land of Canaan, the kingdoms of Ammon, Moab and Edom ruled east of the Jordan. Although the Bible offers information about these three Iron Age kingdoms, recent archaeological discoveries are bringing to light a fuller picture of them. In his article “Ammon, Moab and Edom: Gods and Kingdoms East of the Jordan,” published in the November/December 2016 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Joel S. Burnett examines the incredible archaeological discoveries from Ammon, Moab and Edom.

Who were the Ammonites? In the Bible, they are described as being descendants of Ben-ammi, who was the son of Lot (Abraham’s nephew) and Lot’s younger daughter (Genesis 19:38). The capital of the Iron Age kingdom of Ammon was Rabbah, which is located at modern-day Amman, Jordan. Burnett describes the boundaries of Ammon: “The Ammonite heartland comprised the north-central Transjordanian Plateau encircled by the upper Jabbok … within a 12.5-mile radius of its capital at the headwaters of the Jabbok.” The Ammonites’ primary deity was the god Milcom. Depictions of Milcom have been uncovered through archaeological excavations—as have representations of Ammonite kings, such as the monumental statue uncovered at Rabbah in 2010.
 


 
Other than Israel, no country has as many Biblical sites and associations as Jordan: Mount Nebo, from where Moses gazed at the Promised Land; Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John baptized Jesus; Lot’s Cave, where Lot and his daughters sought refuge after the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah; and many more. Travel with us on our journey into the past in our free eBook Exploring Jordan.
 

 
mesha-stele

We learn about the Moabites in the Bible and in the famous Mesha Stele. Photo: “Stèle de Mésha” by Mbzt 2012 is licensed under CC-by-3.0

Who were the Moabites? In the Bible, the Moabites are said to have descended from Moab, the son of Lot and his oldest daughter (Genesis 19:37). The kingdom of Moab stretched “north and south of the Arnon River” with its capital at Dibon. The Moabites worshiped the god Chemosh, who may be depicted in the Balua‘ Stele (dated to the end of Late Bronze Age). The most famous Moabite king—from the archaeological record at least—is Mesha. The large inscription he left behind is the longest Moabite text. Dating to the ninth century B.C.E., the Mesha Stele describes how King Mesha rescued the Moabites from Israelite rule.

Who were the Edomites? In the Bible, the Edomites are the descendants of Esau, Jacob’s twin and Isaac’s oldest son (Genesis 36). The Edomites controlled an area east of the Arabah, from the Zered to the Gulf of Aqaba. Their capital was Bozrah, which sat in the northern part of their territory. Although no name of an Edomite deity is given in the Bible, archaeologists know from inscriptions that the Edomites’ principal deity was Qaus (or Qos). Several Edomite places of worship and cultic figurines have been uncovered. One of the most notable is the depiction of an Edomite goddess wearing a three-horned headdress from the site of Qitmit, Israel.

edomite-goddess- qitmit

Wearing a three-horned headdress, this Edomite goddess figurine was discovered at Horvat Qitmit. Photo: “Edomite Goddess, Qitmit” by Chamberi is licensed under CC-by-SA-3.0

The kingdoms of Ammon, Moab and Edom fought with the Israelites and the Judahites over territory. The Bible presents things from the Israelites’ and Judahites’ point of view, and archaeological discoveries help show us the other side. By looking at what these ancient peoples wrote and left behind, we are able to better understand their perspective. We now have a fuller picture of their kings, gods and daily life.

To learn more about the kingdoms of Ammon, Moab and Edom, read Joel S. Burnett’s comprehensive article “Ammon, Moab and Edom: Gods and Kingdoms East of the Jordan,” in the November/December 2016 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.

——————

BAS Library Members: Read the full article “Ammon, Moab and Edom: Gods and Kingdoms East of the Jordan,” by Joel S. Burnett in the November/December 2016 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.

Not a BAS Library member yet? Join the BAS Library today.
 


 

Related reading in Bible History Daily:

Human Sacrifice to an Ammonite God?

Bible Artifacts Found Outside the Trench: The Moabite Stone

The Edomite Stronghold of Sela
 


 

Posted in The Ancient Near Eastern World.

Tagged with , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Add Your Comments

9 Responses

Stay in touch with the conversation, subscribe to the RSS feed for comments on this post.

  • Raymondville says

    Actually the ancient edomites where what we 2day call fair skinned blacks.f anyone spends just a bit of x n the so called black community I would bet money that u will find black folks with the nick name ,”red” example : red foxx, malcom x (called “red”) by his friends aND so on. There are many shades or hues in the black comm. N altho sum black folk may not want a hear it Edom is not just white folks .I believe in my limited intellect as well as heart that the ancient Hebrews were dark skinned as I believe 2 days so called blacks scattered 2 the 4 corners via slavery are desendants of the Hebrews based on bilicial as well as secular knowledge and that being said THE MOST HIGH said ,”MY house shall be a house of prayer 4 all ppl. HE did not excluded any one ppl or race.and by the way it is also known that Hebrews are born n2 a.bloodline n u cannot bcum a Hebrew by conversion but u can bcum a jew.interesting. the word Jewish has “ish” as it suffix which I believe means ,”2 be like” but not the true.also TMH says once HE redeems us and we r back in the land promised 2 our ancestors, the strangers that will cling 2 us can b considered a Hebrew after the 3rd generation is born n the land n all generations b4 n after take hold of HIS covenant. So HIM house will b a house of prayer 4 all ppl. N yes salvation according 2 bible does come thru the Hebrews or 2 use a common misnomer, jews.using gen.14:13-14,deut.28:68 but not limited by far 2 those 2 but thru out the old test. I believe the blacks (hebrews) scattered thru out the world fr the slave trade was/is a judgement fr TMH as punishment 4 worshipping other gods n the total disrespect we have shown n continue 2 show towards HIS holy name as well as 2 others.that being said I wouldn’t trade my skin color or heritage 4 any the n the world knowing the end of esau is the beginning of yacob.neither do I brag about who I am bcuz I am ashame 2 admit that my ancestors were the ones who pissed TMH off so bad that as a result we got scattered.I also believe isa.whole chapter of 47 where HE says HE had already punished us by putting us outta Israel but our captors took it too far in the cruelty of slavery they put us in. And make no mistake there will b a recompense put upon the heads of our captors.I don’t believe all white folks are bad just as I don’t believe all black folks are gd.ppl are just ppl, gd,bad or in between.last thing, we are fr the seed.of shem not ham which they used 2 justify slavery. Look up blacks in the zondervan dictionary n u will c we are defined.outside of the seed of.ham.besides it was.also the Africans that put us n slave ships.THE HOUSE OF TMH is a house of prayer 4 all who takes hold of HIS covenant. Shalom

  • GodsChild says

    White people do not want to accept that the African Americans, Jamaicans, West Indies people, Haitians, South Americans Native Americans and other indigenous people of other places are the scattered children of Israel. They can even tell you where the 12 tribes are. God said that Israel will not be one until his second coming. Deuteronomy explains the curses that were put upon us because like today we are too busy trying to be like white people instead of trying to turn back to the CREATOR. But the tides are shifting. The Apocrypha is a book that goes further into detail of our people as well.

  • Raphael says

    Brother, you just hit a lot of people, right in their decived minds, and mouths. ( PRAISE YES YAH).

  • Island says

    The book of Deuteronomy chapter32 explains what’s going on today false religions and doctrines entertainment false ungodly court system passing same sex laws which is a abomination unto THE LORD and forcing the people to accept it giving rights to the lbgt community modern day Sodom and Gomorrah practicing idol worshipping in all churches bowing to false images especially to that false image of THE LORD worshipping statues in wood and stone wearing crosses when THE LORD was crucified on a tree it’s all pagan worshipping celebrating their false holy days which they call them holidays GOD forbid all roads lead to Rome all religions are false set-up by Rome to control the people and take their money brainwashing you telling you that THE LORD loves everyone and HE died for everyone when HE died for only HIS people read revelation chapter21 verse 12 it tells you who the kingdom of heaven is for my people the 12 tribes of the children of Israel that’s why they banned the bible from school so they can teach false history in their false education system with their false science trying to prove that THE MOST HIGH doesn’t exist the education system is ran by atheists staging false wars to steal other countries land and resources Esau is doing a good job at it calling himself the government so that no one can get the blame cops killing Hebrew Israelites and justify it that’s called murder the bible says ain’t nothing new under the sun the task masters back then had whips and chariots move further into the future they rode horses carried a gun and whips today they have police cars a gun and tasers just follow the eagle the Sunday law is coming soon also forcing you worship their false religions and gods THE LORD day is on Saturday not the first day of the week you will know that it’s not of THE LORD because HE doesn’t force you to do anything it’s called free will to make a choice

  • 1 2


    Some HTML is OK

    or, reply to this post via trackback.


Send this to friend

Hello! You friend thought you might be interested in reading this post from https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org:
Who Were the Ammonites, Moabites and Edomites in the Bible?!
Here is the link: https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/ancient-near-eastern-world/ammonites-moabites-edomites-in-the-bible/
Enter Your Log In Credentials

Change Password

×