The Magdala Stone: The Jerusalem Temple Embodied

Carved stone block depicts symbols of the Jerusalem Temple


Discovered in the center of a first-century C.E. synagogue at the Galilean site of Magdala, the Magdala Stone bears one of the earliest images of the seven-branched menorah. Photo: Yael Yulowich, courtesy Israel Antiquities Authority.

Imagine a first-century Jew living in the land near their Temple in Jerusalem, yet they are too far away to make frequent visits. What did the Temple represent in their daily life? Did they locate God’s presence in the Jerusalem Temple alone or also in their midst when they gathered in the synagogue? For a people living in the diaspora, unable to visit the Temple frequently, what kept the memory and centrality of the Temple fresh in their minds? An intriguing stone uncovered at the site of Magdala on the western shores of the Sea of Galilee in September 2009 might offer a clue. Carved with symbols from the Temple, the quartzite stone was discovered in the middle of an ancient synagogue.

The so-called Magdala Stone is a stone block carved with symbols of the Temple in Jerusalem, with the core of the Temple represented (the Hall, Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies). The stone measure 1.8 by 2 feet with a height of 1 foot. Found almost in the center of the synagogue, the Magdala Stone is believed to be a piece of ceremonial furniture on which the Torah and other sacred scrolls were placed. But is it simply a bimah (a traditional holder for the scrolls), or does it have some deeper significance?

Various theories are being explored. Dr. Rina Talgam of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a forerunner in research on the Magdala Stone, believes that the Magdala Stone may indicate an early Jewish Movement in which the synagogue was perceived to be a “minor temple.” Gathering together with Scripture could be conceived as a form of spiritual worship in lieu of a ritual sacrifice offered in the Temple. It begs the question: Was there an evolving concept of worship in the diaspora? Was there an understanding of God’s presence in the midst of those who revered Scripture? Can this be considered a form of prayer within a first-century synagogue? Or would this be a Christian interpretation imposed upon a Jewish object? Talgam’s research and reflections on the Magdala Stone are awaiting publication.

The front of the Magdala Stone displays an obviously Jewish symbol, the menorah (see image below). It is currently the oldest carved image of the Second Temple’s seven-branched menorah found in a public place. Its tripod base indicates the likelihood that the artist saw the actual menorah in the Temple.


The seven-branched menorah on the Magdala Stone. Photo: Courtesy Israel Antiquities Authority.

The menorah on the Magdala Stone appears to rest on top of a decorated square—symbolic of the altar of sacrifice. It is flanked by two jars, perhaps representing the water and oil used in the Temple. If a rabbi stood in front of the stone, facing the menorah, he would set his gaze south toward Jerusalem, as though entering the Temple itself.

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Along the sides of the stone, the onlooker sees several pillared archways and another set of archways within, giving it a three-dimensional feel (see image below). Talgam speculates that these archways represent the gates of the Azara, or the wall around the Sanctuary and the wall of the Sanctuary itself. A small object at the start of these archways has the shape of an oil lamp from the Herodian period. One can imagine walking through the Temple’s passageways illuminated by oil lamps.


Pillared archways on the side of the Magdala Stone. Photo: Courtesy Israel Antiquities Authority.

Scholars still debate the meaning of several objects on the top of the Magdala Stone (see image below). For example, opinions differ about the interpretation of two clusters of three hearts—six hearts in total. Are they pretty space fillers? Are they ivy leaves? Are they bread loaves? Motti Aviam, Professor of Archaeology at Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee, interprets these as bread loaves that were offered on the shewbread table. Splitting each heart in half conjures up an image paralleling the way bread was offered on the shewbread table: two sets of six bread loaves. The symbols representing the shewbread tables look like upside-down cups. Finding this symbol on ancient coins gives credence to this interpretation.


The top of the Magdala Stone. Photo: Courtesy Israel Antiquities Authority.

Another fascinating symbol dominates the center of the top of the Magdala Stone: a six-petaled rosette. It is flanked by columns with palmette capitals, echoing ancient Jewish historian Josephus’s description of the area directly before the Holy of Holies. The rosette itself symbolizes the actual veil before the Holy of Holies. Josephus describes this veil as being decorated with flowers—perhaps with this very rosette.

Curiously, the rosette is a common Jewish motif found on ossuaries, sarcophagi and monumental tomb façades from the late Second Temple period to the second century C.E. Considering this connection, one wonders if it signifies a passing through the “veil” of this life into the presence of God, just as passing through the veil into the Holy of Holies is an entry into God’s glory localized in the Temple.

This brings us to the final symbol representing the deepest part of the Temple on the Magdala Stone: the Holy of Holies. Two wheels appear suspended in the air with triangular shapes underneath, representing fire (see image below). Early Jewish writings use this imagery to represent the heavenly realm. The wheels are interpreted as the bottom of the chariot, symbolizing God’s throne. The fiery chariot described in Ezekiel 1 and 10 gives credence to the symbol representing God’s presence dwelling both in the Temple and in the heavens.


The back side of a replica of the Magdala Stone at the synagogue. Photo: Magdala Project.

The richness and completeness of the symbols forces the question: Did the Jewish people in Magdala believe God’s presence was among them in a particular way as they gathered around Scripture? If so, Magdala offers more than mere first-century archaeology. The site allows us also to ponder the crossroad of Jewish and Christian history and faith.

Magdala is open daily to the public from 8:00 to 18:00. For more information, visit

Jennifer Ristine coordinates the Visitors Center and the Magdalena Institute at the site of Magdala in Israel. Previously an educator, she has been helping in the development of Magdala’s site since September 2014.


Related reading in Bible History Daily:

Discoveries in Mary Magdalene’s Hometown

Magdala 2016: Excavating the Hometown of Mary Magdalene by Marcela Zapata-Meza

The Fishy Secret to Ancient Magdala’s Economic Growth by Marcela Zapata-Meza

Ancient Bronze Marvels at Magdala

Understanding the Jewish Menorah

Ancient Synagogues in Israel and the Diaspora


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  • Jan says

    The rampant rams are sometimes replaced by lions. And the tree of life is sometimes depicted as the goddess herself.

    I’d like to refer also to the tombstone of Monteverde with the Greek text ACTHP (Ishtar) showing a menorah with two doves. There is another clear example of a menorah/tree on a Mesopotamian stone vase dated 3000 BCE, as shown in figure 67 of Roger Cook: The Tree of Life, Image for the Cosmos, Thames and Hudson, NY 1974 p. 119. Here the menora is clearly a 7 branched tree. The two doves in this case look away from the tree.

    This underlines my idea that the menorah is in fact a stylized Asherah tree. Asherah, a Canaanite goddess, consort of El, mother of Baal and 69 other children very popular amongst the jewish population, long before king Josiah (641-609 BCE) tried to eradicate Asherah worship.

  • Jan says

    Helen, I beg to differ.
    I refer to the 13th century BC fragment of a pottery jug found in the Fosse temple III at Tel Lachisch found in 1933. The image clearly shows a 7 branch menorah referring to Elat (goddess), consort of El, hence Asherah. I also refer to the image on the Kuntillet Ajrud pithos A showing a tree with 7 or 9 branches. The Sumerian UR Relief – Tree of life with two rampant rams against a tree of life with 7 branches. C. 2600 BC in The British Museum. A similar Phrygian tablet with two rampant trams against a tree of life of 9 branches 7th c. BC. The stone carving in the wall of a menorah in the synagogue of Peki’in clearly depicts a stylized tree. And there are many more examples of stylized trees looking like menorahs.

  • Joseph says

    Jennifer Ristine’s final question, “Did the Jewish people in Magdala believe God’s presence was among them in a particular way as they gathered around Scripture?” finds resonance in the Gospel of Matthew. In chapter 18 verse 20, Jesus states, “For where two or three are gathered in my name, I am there among them.” Could this statement reflect a common belief among Jews of the diaspora?

  • Helen says

    Jan — the article says: “It is currently the oldest carved image of the Second Temple’s seven-branched menorah found in a public place. Its tripod base indicates the likelihood that the artist saw the actual menorah in the Temple.”

    It would appear that one of the branches has been eroded by time. By the time of the Second Temple, Canaanite religious practice had been wiped out pretty thoroughly.

    Torah describes the furnishings of the Tabernacle as being lit by a 7 branched menorah. Again, the menorah has nothing to do with Canaanite worship.

    If you are looking for the feminine aspect of God, consider the Holy Spirit that aspect. The Spirit that brooded over the waters of creation, the Wisdom that built the universe in the Tanach are all feminine images. It’s not until Latin dominates the liturgical conversation in Western Christianity that God becomes solely masculine.

    Contemplative prayer can renew that element in personal worship of God. One does not need to seek the Holy Spirit in other religions like Buddhism. She is present to those who seek Her. The Eastern Christians retain the feminine aspect of God in the “pew” while in the West, we put the Holy Spirit into the monastic lifestyle and context.

  • Jan says

    Was the menorah not a remnant of earlier Asherah worship? Goddess Asherah, consort of El and mother of Baal was often depicted as a tree. She was erased by king Josia, but may have gone underground. And the graffito of a 5 branched menorah is clearly a tree and the foot therof may represent .roots.

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