Ancient Christian Settlement Discovered in Egypt

Non-invasive techniques recover vibrant Christian community

Ancient Christtian Settlement in Egypt

Modular construction of ancient Marea. Credit: Mariusz Gwiazda

A team of archaeologists from the University of Warsaw announced the discovery of a previously unknown Christian settlement in Egypt. The site, known as ancient Marea and located about 25 miles southwest of Alexandria, was built in the third century B.C.E., shortly after the conquest of Alexander the Great. The newly discovered portions of the site, however, date to the sixth century C.E., when Marea served as a waystation for Christian pilgrims traveling to Abu Mena, the location of the tomb of the martyr Menas of Alexandria, who died in 296 C.E.

Interested in modern archaeological technology? Researchers at the UCSD’s Calit2 laboratory released the free BAS eBook Cyber-Archaeology in the Holy Land — The Future of the Past, featuring 21st-century research on GPS, Light Detection and Ranging Laser Scanning, unmanned aerial drones, 3D artifact scans, CAVE visualization environments and much more.

Marea was located on the shore of Lake Mariout and was an industrial center and harbor town. Although excavations have taken place since the 1970s, it was only in the last few years that archaeologists were able to reveal the site’s deep history. Marea’s Christian precinct was home to one of the largest Christian basilicas in late antique Egypt and featured remarkably clear and deliberate urban planning. The precinct consists of rows of identical “modular” buildings, each made up of uniformly sized storefronts, residences, and porticos. It also had bathhouses and latrines, a hospital, and even streets intersecting at right angles—an extreme rarity for the period.

The 32-acre Christian precinct was discovered using new, non-invasive archaeological techniques, which were able to study a greater area of the site than traditional excavation allows. It also represents one of the very few residential areas constructed in the later years of the Byzantine empire and the only such settlement that was left unfortified. Only a hundred years after the construction of Christian Marea, however, all of Egypt was conquered by Muslim forces (c. 639–646 C.E.), though Marea survived for another century before its final abandonment in the eighth century.

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The First Peace Treaty Between Israel and Egypt: 3000 year old treaty sealed by marriage of Pharaoh’s daughter to King Solomon. by Abraham Malamat

The recent peace treaty between Egypt and Israel may have a historical precedent from almost 3000 years ago. Then too, these two nations wisely decided that peaceful co-existence was better than military confrontation.

Alexander in the East: Tutored by Aristotle, mentored by Ares, Alexander the Great set no limits upon his ambition. by Frank Holt

Alexander the Great never reached his goal of conquering all the inhabited earth. This was simply beyond his army’s endurance. But he did get as far east as ancient Bactria, in modern Afghanistan. More than two thousand years later, archaeologists have begun to recover evidence of Greek settlers Alexander left behind at a village called Ai Khanoum. Unfortunately, much of what remains in this remote area of war-torn Afghanistan is being looted from the site and plundered from museums. The tale is nonetheless heroic, even if it ends in tragedy.

An Ancient Israelite House in Egypt? by Hershel Shanks

What may be an ancient Israelite house has been discovered at the one-time Egyptian capital of Thebes, dating to about the same time the Israelites were settling in Canaan (Iron Age I; 1200–1000 B.C.E.).

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