Glossary

'

'Ain Dara Temple

The black basalt ruins of the Iron Age temple discovered at ’Ain Dara in northern Syria offer the closest known parallel to the Temple of King Solomon in the Bible.

A

Amarna Tablets

In 1887 a Bedouin woman searching among ancient ruins near the Nile River discovered some inscribed clay tablets. This site, located 200 miles south of Cairo, was later named el-Amarna, and the tablets became known as the Amarna tablets or Amarna letters. Scholars have determined that these Amarna letters came from the royal archive of Pharaoh Akhenaten (1353–1337 B.C.), containing records of his father’s (Amenophis III) official correspondence with his various Canaanite vassal rulers.

Ancient Artifacts

Ancient artifacts are manmade objects often found during archaeological excavation. Ancient Biblical artifacts are artifacts that make a contribution to our understanding of the Bible and/or the historicity of Biblical events.

Ancient Biblical Manuscripts

Ancient Biblical manuscripts are handwritten copies of Biblical texts from antiquity. Examples include the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Codex Vaticanus, the Codex Sinaiticus, the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex.

Ancient Israelite Religion

Ancient Israelite religion refers to the religious practices and beliefs of the people of Israel during the Biblical period, especially from the Iron Age to the Persian period.

Ancient Jerusalem History

Jerusalem, the capital of ancient (and modern) Israel, is the epicenter of Biblical archaeology. Almost every time someone digs in the Holy City, some new and exciting clue about the history of ancient Jerusalem is revealed.

Antiquities

Historical objects from antiquity, particularly from classical Greece, Rome, Ancient Egypt and the Ancient Near East.

Archaeologist Discoveries

Archaeologist discoveries (or archaeology discoveries) are artifacts, ruins and other material remains uncovered during archaeological excavations.

Archaeology Discoveries

Archaeology discoveries (or archaeologist discoveries) are artifacts, ruins and other material remains uncovered during archaeological excavations.

B

Bible Hermeneutics

For as long as there have been Biblical texts, there have been Bible hermeneutics, or Bible interpretations. The hermeneutics of the Bible are the many ways people approach and understand the Bible.

Biblical Archaeology

Biblical archaeology is a branch of archaeology dealing with the archaeology of Biblical lands that informs our understanding of the Bible and/or the historicity of Biblical events.

Biblical Archaeology Discoveries

Biblical archaeology discoveries include artifacts, ruins and other material remains that make a contribution to our understanding of the Bible and/or the historicity of Biblical events. Also know as Biblical archaeology finds and Biblical archaeology findings.

Biblical Archaeology Findings

Biblical archaeology findings include artifacts, ruins and other material remains that make a contribution to our understanding of the Bible and/or the historicity of Biblical events. Also known as Biblical archaeology discoveries and Biblical archaeology finds.

Biblical Archaeology Finds

Biblical archaeology finds include artifacts, ruins and other material remains that make a contribution to our understanding of the Bible and/or the historicity of Biblical events. Also know as Biblical archaeology discoveries and Biblical archaeology findings.

Biblical Artifacts

Biblical artifacts are manmade objects, often found during archaeological excavations, that make a contribution to our understanding of the Bible and/or the historicity of Biblical events.

Biblical Jerusalem

The City of David is believed to be Biblical Jerusalem, and is the modern city’s oldest settled neighborhood. Located south of the famous Temple Mount, excavations have revealed it to be a Bronze Age walled city. According to traditional Jerusalem history and narratives in the Hebrew Bible, it is the place where King David established his capital and built his palace.

Biblical Moses

Biblical Moses takes center stage throughout the whole Pentateuch. Who was Moses? A rather solitary leader, one with his people but set apart, even in his childhood, when he was raised by the pharaoh’s daughter as if he were an Egyptian prince. Set apart also in that he married an alien wife—Midianite or possibly Ethiopian. Even his physical characteristics—a speech defect—set him apart from others and is accommodated by God who arranges a leadership duo with Moses and his priestly brother Aaron. His role was unique—even to receiving the Law and seeing God, as evidenced by Moses’ blinding countenance.

Biblical Plagues

The Book of Exodus in the Bible describes ten Egyptian plagues that bring suffering to the land of pharaoh. The ten Biblical plagues described in Exodus are water turning into blood, frogs, lice, flies, diseased livestock, boils, thunder and hail, locusts, darkness and the death of firstborn children and animals.

C

Christian Crusades

For period of almost 200 years during the Middle Ages, Christian Crusades wrested control of the Palestine region from the Selçuk Turks due to a series of military incursions made up of Christian armies largely from Western Europe. The control that the Christian Crusades exerted over the Holy Land was tenuous at best. The Christian Crusades were more of a series of invasions that took place in fits and starts by all manner of Europeans—young, old, poor (and poorly trained)—in addition to the occasional land-holding knight.

Christian Site

A Christian site is a historical and/or archaeological site related to the New Testament and the development of early Christianity.

Clay Bullae

Clay bullae, or seal impressions, are among the most common Biblical artifacts found in Israel and the Near East. Clay bullae were formed by pressing a seal into a wet lump of clay that secured the string tied around a document. The seal impression served as both a signature and security measure for the authenticity of the contents. In the fiery destructions that were so common in antiquity, the documents and strings were usually burned away, but the clay bullae were baked hard and therefore preserved.

Crusades History

Crusades history refers to a period of almost 200 years during the Middle Ages when Christian Crusades wrested control of the Palestine region from the Selçuk Turks due to a series of military incursions made up of Christian armies largely from Western Europe. The control that the Christian Crusades exerted over the Holy Land was tenuous at best. The Christian Crusades were more of a series of invasions that took place in fits and starts by all manner of Europeans—young, old, poor (and poorly trained)—in addition to the occasional land-holding knight.

D

Dead Sea Scrolls Discovery

The Dead Sea Scrolls discovery has been called the greatest manuscript find of all time. Discovered between 1947 and 1956, the Dead Sea Scrolls comprise some 800 documents but in many tens of thousands of fragments. The Scrolls date from around 250 B.C. to 68 A.D. and were written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek; they contain Biblical and apocryphal works, prayers and legal texts and sectarian documents. This priceless collection of ancient manuscripts is invaluable to our understanding of the history of Judaism, the development of the Hebrew Bible, and the beginnings of Christianity.

E

Egyptian Plagues

The Book of Exodus in the Bible describes ten Egyptian plagues that bring suffering to the land of pharaoh. The ten plagues described in Exodus are water turning into blood, frogs, lice, flies, diseased livestock, boils, thunder and hail, locusts, darkness and the death of firstborn children and animals.

G

Gnostic Christianity

An early Christian religious movement that offered an alternate testament to Jesus’ life and teachings. According to the Gnostics, the God of the Hebrew Bible is actually a corrupted lower deity. Only through the intervention of Sophia (Wisdom) can gnosis be revealed and salvation attained. Thus, while adherents of Gnostic Christianity certainly acknowledged the role of Jesus in their faith, their theology placed greater significance on the intellectual revelation of his message than on his crucifixion and resurrection.

H

Hermeneutics Definition

A hermeneutics definition is, quite simply, Bible interpretations. For as long as there have been Biblical texts, there have been Bible hermeneutics, or Bible interpretations. The hermeneutics of the Bible are the many ways people approach and understand the Bible.

Hermeneutics Of The Bible

Hermeneutics of the Bible refers to Bible interpretations. For as long as there have been Biblical texts, there have been Bible hermeneutics, or Bible interpretations. The hermeneutics of the Bible are the many ways people approach and understand the Bible.

Herodian Temple

Herodian Temple refers to the Temple of King Herod the Great. Somewhere on Jerusalem’s majestic Temple Mount—the largest man-made platform in the ancient world, the size of 24 football fields, nearly 145 acres—Herod the Great (37–4 B.C.) built a new Temple to the Israelite God Yahweh, doubtless on the very spot where the exiles returning from Babylonia more than 500 years earlier had rebuilt the original Temple, first erected in the tenth century B.C. by King Solomon. It is well known that Herod the Great approximately doubled the size of the Temple Mount by extending the earlier Temple Mount on the north, south and west. He could not extend it on the east because the land drops off steeply to the Kidron Valley beyond the wall on that side.

History Of Crucifixion

History of crucifixion refers to the history of a method of punishment and/or execution practiced by Assyrians, Phoenicians, Persians, Greeks, Seleucids, Ptolemies and Romans during Biblical times.

House Of David Inscription

The Tel Dan inscription, or “House of David” inscription, was discovered in 1993 at the site of Tel Dan in northern Israel in an excavation directed by Israeli archaeologist Avraham Biran. The broken and fragmentary inscription commemorates the victory of an Aramean king over his two southern neighbors: the “king of Israel” and the “king of the House of David.” What made the Tel Dan inscription one of the most exciting Biblical archaeology discoveries for scholars and the broader public was its unprecedented reference to the “House of David.” The stela’s fragmented inscription, first read and translated by the renowned epigrapher Joseph Naveh, proved that King David from the Bible was a genuine historical figure and not simply the fantastic literary creation of later Biblical writers and editors.

R

Religion In Ancient Israel

Religion in ancient Israel, or ancient Israelite religion, refers to the religious practices and beliefs of the people of Israel during the Biblical period, especially from the Iron Age to the Persian period.

Roman Crucifixion Methods

Roman crucifixion methods refers to the crucifixion methods used by Romans to punish, humiliate or execute prisoners, slaves, foreign captives, rebels and fugitives.

S

Siloam Pool

The Siloam Pool, according to the Gospel of John, is the location where Jesus healed the blind man (John 9:1–11). In June 2004, the ruins of the Siloam Pool were discovered during construction work to repair a large water pipe south of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount, at the southern end of the ridge known as the City of David. Archaeologists Ronny Reich and Eli Shukron identified two ancient stone steps, and further excavation revealed that they were part of a monumental pool from the Second Temple period, the period in which Jesus lived.

T

Tel Dan Inscription

The Tel Dan inscription, or "House of David" inscription, was discovered in 1993 at the site of Tel Dan in northern Israel in an excavation directed by Israeli archaeologist Avraham Biran. The broken and fragmentary inscription commemorates the victory of an Aramean king over his two southern neighbors: the “king of Israel” and the “king of the House of David.” What made the Tel Dan inscription one of the most exciting Biblical archaeology discoveries for scholars and the broader public was its unprecedented reference to the “House of David.” The stela’s fragmented inscription, first read and translated by the renowned epigrapher Joseph Naveh, proved that King David from the Bible was a genuine historical figure and not simply the fantastic literary creation of later Biblical writers and editors.

Temple Mount History

Temple Mount history refers to the history of Jerusalem's Temple Mount. Considered sacred ground even before Biblical times and bitterly contested in our own day, the Temple Mount in Jerusalem is one of the most fascinating and important places on earth, with great religious significance to Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Temple Of King Solomon

The Temple of King Solomon is the fabled Jerusalem sanctuary described in such exacting detail in 1 Kings 6, and was no doubt one the most stunning achievements of King Solomon in the Bible, For centuries, scholars have searched in vain for any remnant of Solomon’s Temple, yet nothing of the building itself has been found because excavation on Jerusalem’s Temple Mount, the site of the Temple of King Solomon, is impossible.

The Aleppo Codex

One of the most important ancient Biblical manuscripts, the Aleppo codex was originally written in Tiberias around 930 A.D. It became the version of the Hebrew Bible that was ultimately considered the most authoritative text in Judaism. In the anti-Jewish riots that broke out in Aleppo, Syria following the U.N. resolution that created the Israeli state in 1947, this most important of ancient Biblical manuscripts was damaged—portions of it remain missing to this day.

Y

Yehohanan

Archaeologist Vassilios Tzaferis excavated a Jerusalem tomb that contained the bones of a crucified man named Yehohanan in 1968.


Enter Your Log In Credentials

Change Password

×