How Bad Was Jezebel?

Read Janet Howe Gaines's full article about Jezebel in the Bible and later depictions as it appeared in Bible Review

Read Janet Howe Gaines’s article “Jezebel” as it originally appeared in Bible Review, October 2000. The article was first republished in Bible History Daily in 2010.—Ed.


Who Was Jezebel?

Israel’s most accursed queen carefully fixes a pink rose in her red locks in John Byam Liston Shaw’s “Jezebel” from 1896. Jezebel’s reputation as the most dangerous seductress in the Bible stems from her final appearance: her husband King Ahab is dead; her son has been murdered by Jehu. As Jehu’s chariot races toward the palace to kill Jezebel, she “painted her eyes with kohl and dressed her hair, and she looked out of the window” (2 Kings 9:30). Image: Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum, Bournemouth, UK/Bridgeman Art Library.

For more than two thousand years, Jezebel has been saddled with a reputation as the bad girl of the Bible, the wickedest of women. This ancient queen has been denounced as a murderer, prostitute and enemy of God, and her name has been adopted for lingerie lines and World War II missiles alike. But just how depraved was Jezebel?

In recent years, scholars have tried to reclaim the shadowy female figures whose tales are often only partially told in the Bible. Rehabilitating Jezebel’s stained reputation is an arduous task, however, for she is a difficult woman to like. She is not a heroic fighter like Deborah, a devoted sister like Miriam or a cherished wife like Ruth. Jezebel cannot even be compared with the Bible’s other bad girls—Potiphar’s wife and Delilah—for no good comes from Jezebel’s deeds. These other women may be bad, but Jezebel is the worst.1

Yet there is more to this complex ruler than the standard interpretation would allow. To attain a more positive assessment of Jezebel’s troubled reign and a deeper understanding of her role, we must evaluate the motives of the Biblical authors who condemn the queen. Furthermore, we must reread the narrative from the queen’s vantage point. As we piece together the world in which Jezebel lived, a fuller picture of this fascinating woman begins to emerge. The story is not a pretty one, and some—perhaps most—readers will remain disturbed by Jezebel’s actions. But her character might not be as dark as we are accustomed to thinking. Her evilness is not always as obvious, undisputed and unrivaled as the Biblical writer wants it to appear.

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Ahab and Jezebel in the Bible

The story of Jezebel, the Phoenician wife of King Ahab of Israel, is recounted in several brief passages scattered throughout the Books of Kings. Scholars generally identify 1 and 2 Kings as part of the Deuteronomistic History, attributed either to a single author or to a group of authors and editors collectively known as the Deuteronomist. One of the main purposes of the entire Deuteronomistic History, which includes the seven books from Deuteronomy through 2 Kings, is to explain Israel’s fate in terms of its apostasy. As the Israelites settle into the Promised Land, establish a monarchy and separate into a northern and a southern kingdom after the reign of Solomon, God’s chosen people continually go astray. They sin against Yahweh in many ways, the worst of which is by worshiping alien deities. The first commandments from Sinai demand monotheism, but the people are attracted to foreign gods and goddesses. When Jezebel enters the scene in the ninth century B.C.E., she provides a perfect opportunity for the Bible writer to teach a moral lesson about the evil outcomes of idolatry, for she is a foreign idol worshiper who seems to be the power behind her husband. From the Deuteronomist’s viewpoint, Jezebel embodies everything that must be eliminated from Israel so that the purity of the cult of Yahweh will not be further contaminated.

As the Books of Kings recount, the princess Jezebel is brought to the northern kingdom of Israel to wed the newly crowned King Ahab, son of Omri (1 Kings 16:31). Her father is Ethbaal of Tyre, king of the Phoenicians, a group of Semites whose ancestors were Canaanites. Phoenicia consisted of a loose confederation of city-states, including the sophisticated maritime trade centers of Tyre and Sidon on the Mediterranean coast. The Bible writer’s antagonism stems primarily from Jezebel’s religion. The Phoenicians worshiped a swarm of gods and goddesses, chief among them Baal, the general term for “lord” given to the head fertility and agricultural god of the Canaanites. As king of Phoenicia, it is likely that Ethbaal was also a high priest or had other important religious duties. According to the first-century C.E. historian Josephus, who drew on a Greek translation of the now-lost Annals of Tyre, Ethbaal served as a priest of Astarte, the primary Phoenician goddess. Jezebel, as the king’s daughter, may have served as a priestess as she was growing up. In any case, she was certainly raised to honor the deities of her native land.

The legacy of Jezebel. “In the last days, the daughters of Jezebel shall rule over nations,” warns the scrawling inscription that surrounds the face of Jezebel in this 1993 painting by American folk artist Robert Roberg. The apocalyptic message seems to associate the Biblical queen with the “mother of whores and of abominations” who “rules over the kings of the earth” and who has committed fornication with them (Revelation 17:2, 5, 18).
Jezebel’s name appears once in the New Testament Book of Revelation, where it is attached to an unrepentant prophetess who has beguiled the people “to practice fornication and to eat food sacrificed to idols” (Revelation 2:20).
Yet the Book of Kings offers no hint of sexual impropriety on Queen Jezebel’s part, argues author Gaines. She is, if anything, a too-devoted wife, willing even to commit murder in order to help her husband maintain his authority as king. Image: Robert Roberg

When Jezebel comes to Israel, she brings her foreign gods and goddesses—especially Baal and his consort Asherah (Canaanite Astarte, often translated in the Bible as “sacred post”)—with her. This seems to have an immediate effect on her new husband, for just as soon as the queen is introduced, we are told that Ahab builds a sanctuary for Baal in the very heart of Israel, within his capital city of Samaria: “He took as wife Jezebel daughter of King Ethbaal of the Phoenicians, and he went and served Baal and worshiped him. He erected an altar to Baal in the temple of Baal which he built in Samaria. Ahab also made a ‘sacred post’”a (1 Kings 16:31–33).2

Jezebel does not accept Ahab’s God, Yahweh. Rather, she leads Ahab to tolerate Baal. This is why she is vilified by the Deuteronomist, whose goal is to stamp out polytheism. She represents a view of womanhood that is the opposite of the one extolled in characters such as Ruth the Moabite, who is also a foreigner. Ruth surrenders her identity and submerges herself in Israelite ways; she adopts the religious and social norms of the Israelites and is universally praised for her conversion to God. Jezebel steadfastly remains true to her own beliefs.

Jezebel’s marriage to Ahab was a political alliance. The union provided both peoples with military protection from powerful enemies as well as valuable trade routes: Israel gained access to the Phoenician ports; Phoenicia gained passage through Israel’s central hill country to Transjordan and especially to the King’s Highway, the heavily traveled inland route connecting the Gulf of Aqaba in the south with Damascus in the north. But although the marriage is sound foreign policy, it is intolerable to the Deuteronomist because of Jezebel’s idol worship.

The Bible does not comment on what the young Jezebel thinks about marrying Ahab and moving to Israel. Her feelings are of no interest to the Deuteronomist, nor are they germane to the story’s didactic purpose.

To learn more about Biblical women with slighted traditions, take a look at the Bible History Daily feature Scandalous Women in the Bible, which includes articles on Mary Magdalene and Lilith.

We are not told whether Ethbaal consults his daughter, if she departs Phoenicia with trepidation or enthusiasm, or what she expects from her role as ruler. Like other highborn daughters of her time, Jezebel is probably a pawn, packed off to the highest bidder.

Israel’s topography, customs and religion would certainly be very different from those of Jezebel’s native land. Instead of the lushness of the moist seacoast, she would find Israel to be an arid, desert nation. Furthermore, the Torah shows the Israelites to be an ethnocentric, xenophobic people. In Biblical narratives, foreigners are sometimes unwelcome, and prejudice against intermarriage is seen since the day Abraham sought a woman from his own people to marry his son Isaac (Genesis 24:4). In contrast to the familiar gods and goddesses that Jezebel is accustomed to petitioning, Israel is home to a state religion featuring a lone, masculine deity. Perhaps Jezebel optimistically believes that she can encourage religious tolerance and give legitimacy to the worship habits of those Baalites who already reside in Israel. Perhaps Jezebel sees herself as an ambassador who could help unite the two lands and bring about cultural pluralism, regional peace and economic prosperity.

What spurs Jezebel to action is unknown and unknowable, but the motives of the Deuteronomist come through plainly in the text. Jezebel is a bold and impious interloper who has to be stopped. From her own point of view, however, she is no apostate. She remains loyal to her religious upbringing and is determined to maintain her cultural identity.

According to the Deuteronomist, however, Jezebel’s desire is not merely confined to achieving ethnic or religious parity. She also seems driven to eliminate Israel’s faithful servants of God. Evidence of Jezebel’s cruel desire to wipe out Yahweh worship in Israel is reported in 1 Kings 18:4, at the Bible’s second mention of her name: “Jezebel was killing off the prophets of the Lord.”

The threat of Jezebel is so great that later in the same chapter, the mythic prophet Elijah summons the acolytes of Jezebel to a tournament on Mt. Carmel to determine which deity is supreme: God or Baal.

Whichever deity is capable of setting a sacrificial bull on fire will be the winner, the one true God. It is only then that we learn just how many followers of Jezebel’s gods and goddesses are near her at court. Elijah challenges them: “Now summon all Israel to join me at Mount Carmel, together with the four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal and the four hundred prophets of Asherah who eat at Jezebel’s table” (1 Kings 18:19). Whether the grand total of 850 is a symbolic or literal number, it is impressive.

Glass jewels and glitter adorn the veiled crown of Jezebel and twisted branches speckled with paint form the queen’s body in this sculpture by Bessie Harvey. Photo by Ron Lee, The Silver Factory/The Arnett Collection, Atlanta, GA

Detail of veiled crown of Jezebel (compare with photo of veiled crown of Jezebel). Photo by Ron Lee, The Silver Factory/The Arnett Collection, Atlanta, GA.

Yet their superior numbers can do nothing to ensure victory; nor can petitions to their god. The prophets of Baal “performed a hopping dance about the altar” and “kept raving” (1 Kings 18:26, 29) all day long in a vain attempt to rouse Baal. They even gash themselves with knives and whoop it up in a heightened emotional state, hoping to incite Baal to unleash a great fire. But Baal does not respond to the ecstatic ranting of Jezebel’s prophets. At the end of the day, it is Elijah’s single plea to God that is answered.

Learn about the excavations at Jezreel in “Jezreel Expedition 2016: You Don’t Have to Be an Archaeologist to Dig the Bible” and “Jezreel Expedition Sheds New Light on Ahab and Jezebel’s City.”

Standing alone before Jezebel’s host of visionaries, Elijah cries out: “O Lord, God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel! Let it be known today that You are God in Israel and that I am Your servant, and that I have done all these things at Your bidding. Answer me, O Lord, answer me, that this people may know that You, O Lord, are God; for You have turned their hearts backward” (1 Kings 18:36–37). At once, “fire from the Lord descended and consumed the burnt offering, the wood, the stones and the earth;…When they saw this, all the people flung themselves on their faces and cried out: ‘The Lord alone is God, the Lord alone is God!’” (1 Kings 18:38–39). Elijah’s solitary entreaty to Yahweh serves as a foil to the hours of appeals made by Baal’s followers.

Jezebel herself is absent during this all-male event. Nevertheless, her presence is felt and the Deuteronomist’s message is clear. Jezebel’s deities and the huge number of prophets loyal to her are powerless against the omnipotent Yahweh, who is proven by the tournament to be ruler of all the forces of nature.

Ironically, at the conclusion of the Carmel episode, Elijah proves capable of the same murderous inclinations that have previously characterized Jezebel, though it is only she that the Deuteronomist criticizes. After winning the Carmel contest, Elijah immediately orders the assembly to capture all of Jezebel’s prophets. Elijah emphatically declares: “Seize the prophets of Baal, let not a single one of them get away” (1 Kings 18:40). Elijah leads his 450 prisoners to the Wadi Kishon, where he slaughters them (1 Kings 18:40). Though they will never meet in person, Elijah and Jezebel are engaged in a hard-fought struggle for religious supremacy. Here Elijah reveals that he and Jezebel possess a similar religious fervor, though their loyalties differ greatly. They are also equally determined to eliminate one another’s followers, even if it means murdering them. The difference is that the Deuteronomist decries Jezebel’s killing of God’s servants (at 1 Kings 18:4) but now sanctions Elijah’s decision to massacre hundreds of Jezebel’s prophets. Indeed, once Elijah kills Jezebel’s prophets, God rewards him by sending a much-needed rain, ending a three-year drought in Israel. There is a definite double standard here. Murder seems to be accepted, even venerated, as long as it is done in the name of the right deity.

After Elijah’s triumph on Mt. Carmel, King Ahab returns home to give his queen the news that Baal is defeated, Yahweh is the undisputed master of the universe and Jezebel’s prophets are dead. Jezebel sends Elijah a menacing message, threatening to slaughter him just as he has slaughtered her prophets: “Thus and more may the gods do if by this time tomorrow I have not made you like one of them” (1 Kings 19:2). The Septuagint, a third- to second-century B.C.E. Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, prefaces Jezebel’s threat with an additional insult to the prophet. Here Jezebel establishes herself as Elijah’s equal: “If you are Elijah, so I am Jezebel” (1 Kings 19:2b).3 In both versions the queen’s meaning is unmistakable: Elijah should fear for his life.

These are the first words the Deuteronomist records from Jezebel, and they are filled with venom. Unlike the many voiceless Biblical wives and concubines whose muteness reminds us of the powerlessness of women in ancient Israel, Jezebel has a tongue. While her verbal acuity shows that she is more daring, clever and independent than most women of her time, her withering words also demonstrate her sinfulness. Jezebel transforms the precious instrument of language into an evil device to blaspheme God and defy the prophet.

So frightened is Elijah by Jezebel’s threatening words that he flees to Mt. Horeb (Sinai). Despite what he has witnessed on Carmel, Elijah seems to falter in his faith that the Almighty will protect him. As a literary device, Elijah’s sojourn at Horeb gives the Deuteronomist an opportunity to imply parallels between the careers of Moses and Elijah, thus reinforcing Elijah’s exalted reputation. Nevertheless, the timing of Elijah’s flight south makes him look suspiciously like he is afraid of a mere woman.

Jezebel indeed shows herself as a person to be feared in the next episode. The story of Naboth, an Israelite who owns a plot of land adjacent to the royal palace in Jezreel, provides an excellent occasion for the Deuteronomist to propose that Jezebel is not only the foe of Israel’s God, but an enemy of the government.

In 1 Kings 21:2, Ahab requests that Naboth give him his vineyard: “Give me your vineyard, so that I may have it as a vegetable garden, since it is right next to my palace.” Ahab promises to pay Naboth for the land or to provide him with an even better vineyard. But at 1 Kings 21:3, Naboth refuses to sell or trade: “The Lord forbid that I should give up to you what I have inherited from my fathers!” The king whines and refuses to eat after Naboth’s rebuff: “Ahab went home dispirited and sullen because of the answer that Naboth the Jezreelite had given him…He lay down on his bed and turned away his face, and he would not eat” (1 Kings 21:4). Apparently perturbed by her husband’s political impotence and sulking demeanor, Jezebel steps in, proudly asserting: “Now is the time to show yourself king over Israel. Rise and eat something, and be cheerful; I will get the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite for you” (1 Kings 21:7).

Naboth is fully within his rights to hold onto his family plot. Israelite law and custom dictate that his family should maintain their land (nachalah) in perpetuity (Numbers 27:5–11). As a Torah-bound king of Israel, Ahab should understand Naboth’s legitimate desire to keep his inheritance. Jezebel, on the other hand, hails from Phoenicia, where a monarch’s whim is often tantamount to law.4 Having been raised in a land of absolute autocrats, where few dared to question a ruler’s wish or decree, Jezebel might naturally feel annoyance and frustration at Naboth’s resistance to his sovereign’s proposal. In this context, Jezebel’s reaction becomes more understandable, though perhaps no more admirable, for she behaves according to her upbringing and expectations regarding royal prerogative.

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Elijah’s challenge of “the 450 prophets of Baal and the 400 prophets of Asherah who eat at Jezebel’s table” (1 Kings 18:19) is depicted in two scenes on the walls of the third-century C.E. synagogue at Dura-Europos in modern Syria. According to 1 Kings 18, Elijah proposed that both he and the prophets of Baal lay a single bull on an altar and then pray to their respective deities to ignite the sacrificial animal. Whichever deity responded would be deemed the more powerful and the one true God. In the painting shown here, the priests of Baal gather around their altar, crying out, “O, Baal, answer us,” but their sacrifice remains untouched. The small man standing inside the altar in this painting does not appear in the Biblical story, but rather in a later midrash. According to this midrash, when the prophets of Baal realized they would fail, a man named Hiel agreed to hide within the altar to ignite the heifer from below. The Israelite God foiled their plan by sending a snake to bite Hiel, who subsequently died. Image: E. Goodenough, Symbolism in the Dura Synogogue (Princeton Univ. Press)

Without Ahab’s direct knowledge, Jezebel writes letters to her townsmen, enlisting them in an elaborate ruse to frame the innocent Naboth. To ensure their compliance, she signs Ahab’s name and stamps the letters with the king’s seal. Jezebel encourages the townsmen to publicly (and falsely) accuse Naboth of blaspheming God and king. “Then take him out and stone him to death,” she commands (1 Kings 21:10). So Naboth is murdered, and the vineyard automatically escheats to the throne, as is customary when a person is found guilty of a serious crime. If Naboth has relatives, they are now in no position to protest the passing of their family land to Ahab.

Yet the details of Jezebel’s underhanded plot against Naboth do not always ring true. The Bible maintains that “the elders and nobles who lived in [Naboth’s] town…did as Jezebel had instructed them” (1 Kings 21:11). If the trickster queen is able to enlist the support of so many people, none of whom betrays her, to kill a man whom they have probably known all their lives and whom they realize is innocent, then she has astonishing power.

The fantastical tale of Naboth’s death—in which something could go wrong at any moment but somehow does not—stretches the reader’s credulity. If Jezebel were as hateful as the Deuteronomist claims, surely at least one nobleman in Jezreel would have refused to assist in the nefarious scheme. Surely one individual would have had the courage to expose the detestable deed and become the Deuteronomist’s hero by spoiling the plan.5

Shown here, Elijah and his followers have easily conjured up a blazing fire, which engulfs their white bull. Seeing the flames, the Israelites call out, “Yahweh alone is God, Yahweh alone is God” (1 Kings 18:39).
Jezebel herself is not present during the event. And yet Elijah’s contest is a direct challenge to the queen who has brought the worship of Baal to the forefront in Israel by inviting the pagan prophets to the palace (compare with painting of the priests of Baal). Image: The Jewish Mesuem, NY/Art Resource, NY.

Perhaps the Biblical compiler is using Jezebel as a scapegoat for his outrage at her influence over the king, meaning that she herself is being framed in the tale. Traditionally thought to be a narrative about how innocent Naboth is falsely accused, the story could instead be an exaggeration of fact, fabricated to demonstrate the Deuteronomist’s continued wrath against Jezebel.

As a result of this incident, Elijah reappears on the scene. First Yahweh tells Elijah how Ahab will die: “The word of the Lord came to Elijah the Tishbite: ‘Go down and confront King Ahab of Israel who [resides] in Samaria. He is now in Naboth’s vineyard; he has gone down there to take possession of it. Say to him, “Thus said the Lord: Would you murder and take possession? Thus said the Lord: In the very place where the dogs lapped up Naboth’s blood, the dogs will lap up your blood too”’” (1 Kings 21:17–19). But when Elijah confronts Ahab, the prophet predicts instead how the queen will die: “The dogs shall devour Jezebel in the field of Jezreel” (1 Kings 21:23).c Poetic justice, as the Deuteronomist sees it, demands that Jezebel end up as dog food. Ashamed of what has happened and fearful of the future, Ahab humbles himself by assuming outward signs of mourning, fasting and donning sackcloth. Prayer accompanies fasting, whether the Bible explicitly says so or not, so we may assume that Ahab raises his penitential voice to a forgiving Yahweh. For once, Jezebel does not speak; her lack of repentance is implicit in her silence.

After the Death of Ahab: The Ill Repute of Jezebel in the Bible

When Jezebel’s name is mentioned again, the Bible writer makes his most alarming accusation against her. Ahab has died, as has the couple’s eldest son, who followed his father to the throne. Their second son, Joram, rules. But even though Israel has a sitting monarch, a servant of the prophet Elisha crowns Jehu, Joram’s military commander, king of Israel and commissions Jehu to eradicate the House of Ahab: “I anoint you king over the people of the Lord, over Israel. You shall strike down the House of Ahab your master; thus will I avenge on Jezebel the blood of My servants the prophets, and the blood of the other servants of the Lord” (2 Kings 9:6–7).

Four paleo-Hebrew letters—two just below the winged sun disk at center, two at bottom left and right—spell out the name YZBL, or Jezebel, on this seal. The Phoenician design, the dating of the seal to the ninth or early eighth century B.C.E. and, of course, the name, have led scholars to speculate that the Biblical queen may once have used this gray opal to seal her documents. In the Phoenician language, Jezebel’s name may have meant “Where is the Prince?” which was the cry of Baal’s subjects. But the spelling of the Phoenician name has been altered in the Hebrew Bible, perhaps in order to read as “Where is the excrement (zebel, manure)?”—a reference to Elijah’s prediction that “her carcass shall be like dung on the ground” (2 Kings 9:36). Collection Israel Museum/Photo Zev Radovan.

King Joram and General Jehu meet on the battlefield. Unaware that he is about to be usurped by his military commander, Joram calls out: “Is all well, Jehu?” Jehu responds: “How can all be well as long as your mother Jezebel carries on her countless harlotries and sorceries?” (2 Kings 9:22). Jehu then shoots an arrow through Joram’s heart and, in a moment of stinging irony, orders the body to be dumped on Naboth’s land.

From these words alone—uttered by the man who is about to kill Jezebel’s son—stems Jezebel’s long-standing reputation as a witch and a whore. The Bible occasionally connects harlotry and idol worship, as in Hosea 1:3, where the prophet is told to marry a “wife of whoredom,” who symbolically represents the people who “stray from following the Lord” (Hosea 1:3). Lusting after false “lords” can be seen as either adulterous or idolatrous. Yet throughout the millennia, Jezebel’s harlotry has not been identified as mere dolatry. Rather, she has been considered the slut of Samaria, the lecherous wife of a pouting potentate. The 1938 film Jezebel, starring Bette Davis as the destructive temptress who leads a man to his death, is evidence that this ancient judgment against Jezebel has been transmitted to this century. Nevertheless, the Bible never offers evidence that Jezebel is unfaithful to her husband while he is alive or loose in her morals after his death. In fact, she is always shown to be a loyal and helpful spouse, though her brand of assistance is deplored by the Deuteronomist. Jehu’s charge of harlotry is unsubstantiated, but it has stuck anyway and her reputation has been egregiously damaged by the allegation.

When Jezebel herself finally appears again in the pages of the Bible, it is for her death scene. Jehu, with the blood of Joram still on his hands, races his chariot into Jezreel to continue the insurrection by assassinating Jezebel. Ironically, this is her finest hour, though the Deuteronomist intends the queen to appear haughty and imperious to the end. Realizing that Jehu is on his way to kill her, Jezebel does not disguise herself and flee the city, as a more cowardly person might do. Instead, she calmly prepares for his arrival by performing three acts: “She painted her eyes with kohl and dressed her hair, and she looked out of the window” (2 Kings 9:30). The traditional interpretation is that Jezebel primps and coquettishly looks out the window in an effort to seduce Jehu, that she wishes to win his favor and become part of his harem in order to save her own life, such treachery indicating Jezebel’s dastardly betrayal of deceased family members. According to this reading, Jezebel sheds familial loyalty as easily as a snake sheds its skin in an attempt to ensure her continued pleasure and safety at court.

This ivory comes from Arslan Tash, in northern Syria. The most common motif found on Phoenician ivories, the woman at the window may represent the goddess Astarte (Biblical Asherah) looking out a palace window. Perhaps this widespread imagery influenced the Biblical author’s description of Jezebel, a follower of Astarte, looking out the palace window as Jehu approached (2 Kings 9:30). Photo: Erich Lessing

Ivory fragment discovered in Samaria (compare with photo of ivory from Arslan Tash). Photo: Israel Antiquities Authority.

Applying eye makeup (kohl) and brushing one’s hair are often connected to flirting in Hebraic thinking. Isaiah 3:16, Jeremiah 4:30, Ezekiel 23:40 and Proverbs 6:24–26 provide examples of women who bat their painted eyes to lure innocent men into adulterous beds. Black kohl is widely incorporated in Bible passages as a symbol of feminine deception and trickery, and its use to paint the area above and below the eyelids is generally considered part of a woman’s arsenal of artifice. In Jezebel’s case, however, the cosmetic is more than just an attempt to accentuate the eyes. Jezebel is donning the female version of armor as she prepares to do battle. She is a woman warrior, waging war in the only way a woman can. Whatever fear she may have of Jehu is camouflaged by her war paint.

Her grooming continues as she dresses her hair, symbol of a woman’s seductive power. When she dies, she wants to look her queenly best. She is in control here, choosing the manner in which her attacker will last see and remember her.

The third action Jezebel takes before Jehu arrives is to sit at her upper window. The Deuteronomist may be deliberately conjuring up images to associate Jezebel with other disfavored women. For example, contained within Deborah’s victory ode is the story of the unfortunate mother of the enemy general Sisera. Waiting at home, Sisera’s unnamed mother looks out the window for her son to return: “Through the window peered Sisera’s mother, behind the lattice she whined” (Judges 5:28). Her ladies-in-waiting express the hope that Sisera is detained because he is raping Israelite women and collecting booty (Judges 5:29–30). In truth, Sisera is already dead, his skull shattered by Jael and her tent peg (Judges 5:24–27). King David’s wife Michal also looks through her window, watching her husband dance around the Ark of the Covenant as it is triumphantly brought into Jerusalem, “and she despised him for it” (2 Samuel 6:16). Michal does not understand the people’s euphoria over the arrival of the Ark in David’s new capital; she can only feel anger that her husband is dancing about like one of the “riffraff” (2 Samuel 6:20). Generations later, Jezebel also appears at her window, conjuring up images of Sisera’s mother and Michal, two unpopular Biblical women.

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The image of the woman at the window also suggests fertility goddesses, abominations to the Deuteronomist and well known to the general public in ancient Israel. Ivory plaques, dating to the Iron Age and depicting a woman peering through a window, have been discovered in Khorsabad, Nimrud and Samaria, Jezebel’s second home.6 The connection between idol worship, goddesses and the woman seated at the window would not have been lost on the Deuteronomist’s audience.

Sitting at her window, Jezebel is seemingly rendered powerless while the active patriarchal world functions beyond her reach.7 But a more sympathetic reading of the situation suggests that Jezebel has determined the superior angle from which she will be viewed by Jehu, thus giving the queen mastery of the situation.

Positioned at the balcony window, the queen does not remain silent as the usurper Jehu arrives into town. She taunts him by calling him Zimri, the name of the unscrupulous predecessor of Omri, Jezebel’s father-in-law. Zimri ruled Israel for only seven days after murdering the king (Elah) and usurping the throne. “Is all well, Zimri, murderer of your master?” Jezebel asks Jehu (2 Kings 9:31). Jezebel knows that all is not well, and her sarcastic, sharp-tongued insult of Jehu disproves any interpretation that she has dressed in her finest to seduce him. She has contempt for Jehu. Unlike many Biblical wives, who remain silent, Jezebel has a distinct voice, and she is unafraid to articulate her view of Jehu as a renegade and regicide.

To demonstrate his authority, Jehu orders Jezebel’s eunuchs to throw her out of the window: “They threw her down; and her blood spattered on the wall and on the horses, and they trampled her. Then [Jehu] went inside and ate and drank” (2 Kings 9:33–34). In this highly symbolic political action, the once mighty Jezebel is shoved out of her high station to the ground below. Her ejection from the window represents an eternal demotion from her proper place as one of the Bible’s most influential women.

Jezebel’s body is left in the street as Jehu celebrates his victory. Later, perhaps because the new monarch does not wish to begin his reign with such a disrespectful act against a woman, or perhaps because he realizes the danger in setting a precedent for ill treatment of a dead ruler’s remains, Jehu orders Jezebel’s burial: “Attend to that cursed woman and bury her, for she was a king’s daughter” (2 Kings 9:34). Jezebel is not to be remembered as a queen or even as the wife of a king. She is only the daughter of a foreign despot. This is intended as another blow by the Deuteronomist, an attempt to marginalize a formidable woman. When the king’s men come to bury Jezebel, it is too late: “All they found of her were the skull, the feet, and the hands” (2 Kings 9:35). Jehu’s men inform the king that Elijah’s prophecies have been fulfilled: “It is just as the Lord spoke through His servant Elijah the Tishbite: The dogs shall devour the flesh of Jezebel in the field of Jezreel; and the carcass of Jezebel shall be like dung on the ground, in the field of Jezreel, so that none will be able to say: ‘This was Jezebel’” (2 Kings 9:36–37).

With its green hills, fecund grapevines and abundant flowers, the scene depicted in this early-17th-century silk embroidery would appear peaceful—if not for the gruesome detail at left, which shows a woman being pushed out the palace window to a pack of hungry dogs. According to 2 Kings 9, Jehu orders the palace eunuchs to throw Jezebel out a window. When he later commands his men to bury her, little remains: “All they found of her were the skull, the feet and the hands” (2 Kings 9:35). Jehu’s men inform the new king that Elijah’s prophecies have been fulfilled: The queen’s corpse has been devoured by dogs; her body is mutilated beyond recognition, so that “none will be able to say ‘This was Jezebel’” (2 Kings 9:37). Death of Jezebel/Holburne Museum, Bath, UK/Bridgeman Art Library

How Bad Was Jezebel?

While the Biblical storyteller wants the final images of Jezebel to memorialize her as a brazen hussy, a sympathetic interpretation of her behavior has more credibility. When all a person has left in life is the way she faces her death, her final actions speak volumes about her character. Jezebel departs this earth every inch a queen. Now an aging grandmother, it is highly unlikely that she has libidinous designs on Jehu or even entertains the notion of becoming the young king’s paramour. As the daughter, wife, mother, mother-in-law and grandmother of kings, Jezebel would understand court politics well enough to realize that Jehu has far more to gain by killing her than by keeping her alive. Alive, the dowager queen could always serve as a rallying point for anyone unhappy with Jehu’s reign. The queen harbors no illusions about her chances of surviving Jehu’s bloody coup d’état.

How bad was Jezebel? The Deuteronomist uses every possible argument to make the case against her. When Ahab dies, the Deuteronomist is determined to show that “there never was anyone like Ahab, who committed himself to doing what was displeasing to the Lord, at the instigation of his wife Jezebel” (1 Kings 21:25). It is interesting that Ahab is not held responsible for his own actions.8 He goes astray because of a wicked woman. Someone has to bear the writer’s vituperation concerning Israel’s apostasy, and Jezebel is chosen for the job.

Every Biblical word condemns her: Jezebel is an outspoken woman in a time when females have little status and few rights; a foreigner in a xenophobic land; an idol worshiper in a place with a Yahweh-based, state-sponsored religion; a murderer and meddler in political affairs in a nation of strong patriarchs; a traitor in a country where no ruler is above the law; and a whore in the territory where the Ten Commandments originate.

Yet there is much to admire in this ancient queen. In a kinder analysis, Jezebel emerges as a fiery and determined person, with an intensity matched only by Elijah’s. She is true to her native religion and customs. She is even more loyal to her husband. Throughout her reign, she boldly exercises what power she has. And in the end, having lived her life on her own terms, Jezebel faces certain death with dignity.

“How Bad Was Jezebel?” by Janet Howe Gaines originally appeared in Bible Review, October 2000. The article was first republished in Bible History Daily in June 2010.

Janet Howe Gaines is a specialist in the Bible as literature in the Department of English at the University of New Mexico. She recently published Music in the Old Bones: Jezebel Through the Ages (Southern Illinois Univ. Press).



1. For a fuller treatment of Jezebel, see Janet Howe Gaines, Music in the Old Bones: Jezebel Through the Ages (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1999).

2. All references to the Bible, unless otherwise noted, are to Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures: The New JPS Translation According to the Traditional Hebrew Text (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1985).

3. The translation of the Greek text is my own. According to Sir Lancelot C.L. Brenton (The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English, 3rd ed. [Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1990], p. 478), the translation of the entire line is “And Jezabel sent to Eliu, and said, If thou art Eliu and I am Jezabel, God do so to me, and more also, if I do not make thy life by this time tomorrow as the life of one of them.”

4. For a discussion of Phoenician customs, see George Rawlinson, History of Phoenicia (London: Longmans, 1889).

5. As corroborating evidence, see the story of David’s plot to kill Uriah the Hittite in 2 Samuel 11:14–17. Like Jezebel, David writes letters that contain details of his scheme. David intends to enlist help from the entire regiment as confederates who are to “draw back from” Uriah, but Joab makes a shrewd and subtle change in the plan so that it is less likely to be discovered.

6. Eleanor Ferris Beach, “The Samaria Ivories, Marzeah, and Biblical Text,” Biblical Archaeologist 56:2 (1993), pp. 94–104.

7. For an excellent, detailed discussion of Biblical imagery concerning women seated at windows, see Nehama Aschkenasy, Woman at the Window (Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1998).

8. For a reassessment of Ahab’s character based on the archaeological remains of his building projects and extrabiblical texts, see Ephraim Stern, “The Many Masters of Dor, Part 2: How Bad Was Ahab?” BAR 19:02.

a. Asherah is the Biblical name for Astarte, a Canaanite fertility goddess and consort of Baal. The term asherah, which appears at least 50 times in the Hebrew Bible (it is often translated as “sacred post”), is used to refer to three manifestations of this goddess: an image (probably a figurine) of the goddess (eg., 2 Kings 21:7); a tree (Deuteronomy 16:21); and a tree trunk, or sacred post (Deuteronomy 7:5, 12:3). See Ruth Hestrin, “Understanding Asherah—Exploring Semitic Iconography,” BAR 17:05.

b. In the Septuagint, 1 and 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 Kings are all included in Kings, which therefore has four books, 1–4 Kings.

c. A similar statement is made by the unnamed prophet who anoints Jehu king of Israel in 2 Kings 9:10.

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  1. Billy says

    It is amusing how the current age believes that mankind is truly enlightened, to the point of thinking today’s cultural values have any benefit when interpreting ancient text. Just as there are those that venerate fictional characters such as Dracula, the blood sucking muderer who was cursed by the church, it is illuminating that someone would give kudos to Queen Jezebel. Understanding that the author handles the Bible as literature, it is a bit surprising that the moral of the story is missed. In short, The Lord our God is a Jealous God, explains the idea that Israel belongs to Yahweh, and after patiently waiting for his people to obey Him, sends His prophet so His Will can be made manifest. Pagan, idol worshiping nations had no business in the position of royalty to begin with, so in this regard, Jezebel’s one redeeming characteristic might be found: she probably did not ask to be married off to begin with. As violent and horrendous the end was for her and her prophets, it showed how Yahweh felt about Baal worship.

  2. Ethan says

    By this article, I can only presume that the only character flaw you see in Lady Macbeth is a guilty conscience. Nobody disputes that Jezebel was a powerful woman, brutally and autocratically advancing her ambitions through her husband, or that she was zealous in the faith of her childhood. It goes completely against the text with no justification to suppose that she held religious plurality and tolerance as ideals; the massacre of Hebrew prophets and suppression of the native religion seem perfectly in line with her character, even as interpreted here. Similarly, the incident with the vineyard of Naboth does not stretch credulity nearly as much as you assert; show trials are clearly possible to orchestrate in autocratic states.

  3. Kurt says

    In Jezebel’s treatment of Naboth, we are given another view of this woman’s wicked character, a character that was extremely selfish, unscrupulous, arrogant, cruel. When Ahab began to sulk and pout because Naboth refused to sell him his hereditary vineyard, this unscrupulous woman shamelessly overstepped her husband’s headship and arrogantly declared: “I myself shall give you the vineyard of Naboth.” (1Ki 21:1-7) With that she wrote letters, signed and sealed in the name of Ahab, ordering the older men and nobles of Naboth’s hometown to arrange for good-for-nothing fellows falsely to accuse Naboth of cursing God and the king and then to take Naboth out and stone him to death. In this way Naboth was put to death by a perversion of justice. Ahab then seized the vineyard and prepared to turn it into a vegetable garden.—1Ki 21:8-16.
    Read more:

    Ahab allowed his pagan wife Jezebel to lead him into Baal worship, to build a temple for Baal, and to erect a sacred pole in honor of Asherah. (1Ki 16:30-33) Before long there were 450 prophets of Baal and 400 prophets of the sacred pole, all being fed from Jezebel’s royal table. (1Ki 18:19) True prophets of Jehovah were slain by the sword, and only the action of Ahab’s house manager Obadiah, a man of faith, preserved the lives of 100 of them by hiding them in caves, where they subsisted on bread and water.—1Ki 18:3, 4, 13; 19:10.
    Read more:

  4. Mark says

    It’s interesting to see the dichotomy of the comments on the board. From my perspective though, to try to put Jezebel in a favorable light, you’re asking for a fight. My main issue besides the author’s odd need to put Jezebel in a favorable light (Why, I must ask? Are women inherently good? Or you just thought Ahab got off lightly?), is that by fixating on the depiction of Jezebel as a whore, that she misses the real moral behind Jezebel’s death. It’s not that ‘whores deserve to die’, it’s that pride comes before a fall. Your witness to her dying with dignity is wholly offensive and short-sighted. We all know that the Bible teaches eternal damnation, but if that is not reason enough to see that Jezebel was in the wrong in her defiance, it’s how her own servants betrayed their thoughts of her. The eunuchs, her loyal slaves, through her out the window, not any particular men of Jehu’s, even though Jehu himself was quite capable. The Bible teaches to treat one’s servants with dignity and for servants to love their masters, but even in the royals own house she was hated. If Jezebel’s wickedness isn’t attested by lack of loyalty, then what could? I’m sorry, but by beginning the article with ‘What if Jezebel isn’t wicked?’, asking us to ‘see her in a positive light’ and then concluding that she ‘died with dignity’ all you’ve done is commit the logical fallacy of “begging the question”.

  5. Nandip says

    I love Jezebel, she is a woman of good upbringing that she never abandon her home traditional believed, she defend what she feel is right. women of Africa, Nigeria and Tarok should learn from her good virtue not the way the Deuteronomy put it.

  6. Hannah says

    The author is skeptical of the betrayal of Naboth, because “If Jezebel were as hateful as the Deuteronomist claims, surely at least one nobleman in Jezreel would have refused to assist in the nefarious scheme.”
    Not at all… perhaps they viewed Jezebel with the same benign tolerance as the author: courageous, loyal to her husband, just living by the morality she had learned at home with the gentle Sidonians.
    Or alternately, they were filled with the same awe-struck admiration for ruthless power as the author: “a person to be feared” rather than challenged. (It seems Ms. Gaines can’t decide which side of Jezebel she believes in.)

    Having clicked to this article under the naive impression that there was “archeological news” on Jezebel, I am disappointed to find only speculation colored by today’s moral relativity, and a not-so-subtle promotion of militaristic feminism. The only real archeological item, Jezebel’s seal, was used as a blunt instrument to further bash the Biblical account with more “may have been” guesswork.

    BAR, shame on you – this was neither “Biblical” nor “Archeological”.

  7. Marcos says

    This text was written by a literature specialist, not by an archaeologist. So, the major problem in my humble opinion was the editor of BAR have accepted it as a important article for the review. Would be perfectly fitted in feminist review.

  8. Celina says

    Hey there! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could get a captcha plugin for my comment
    form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding
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  9. cknowles says

    Jezebel shows her cosmetically masked face in the window that all may witness her innocence and with sympathy revile her persecutor. Yet her innocence is contrived to deceive those that she would have power over, just as this same Jezebel spirit deceives this researcher .

  10. MiriK says

    ‘Baal (/ˈbeɪl/ BAYL; sometimes spelled Bael, Baël (French), Baell) is in 17th Century goetic occult writings one of the seven princes of Hell. ( “YZBL” Jezebel’s name may have meant, “Where is the Prince?”, which was the cry of Baal’s subjects.”)
    The name is drawn from the Canaanite deity Baal mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the primary god of the Phoenicians.’

    if it was as simplistic as to denounce her name and discourage her native beliefs her influence may not have been so permitted and subjected as much as claimed. If persecution and a treacherous death were her unfit outcome and plots against her why the need to allow her to accomplish so much and for so long, her schemes had they not been rising from since her early marriage to late years as a “grandmother” ? why not murder her or scheme against her from initial blaspheme, unlike her schemes she was allocated much more tolerance than deserved. And yet till the end it wasn’t dignity but pomposity. And in note to the comparison of other women in the bible, (such as Miriam and Ruth) I doubt in there speechlessness, it was out of weak submission but rather an acquiring of wisdom and in knowing when to speak.

    Proverbs 18:2
    A fool takes no pleasure in understanding, but only in expressing his opinion

    Not everything is accurate in historical texts but rather most requires reading between the lines. The tone is apparent in this article but it corrodes the purpose of objective truths and instead exposes a persuasive mood. Seems to be some contradictions in this article as much as there is being issued of biblical texts.

  11. clovis says

    Great and inspiring article Janet. It is time to read the Bible from what I call the “Phoenician Perspective”. I have some bad news for my brothern Catholics who honor Elijah Al Nabi – Prophet with his sword dripping blood in many of the Levant Churches!

  12. Farouk says

    Grace and Peace to all in the name of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ who gave His life provisionally for us because He is Love. Provisionally because His life is effectual only to those who accept it by faith and allow His life of victory to live in them, showing forth works of righteousness. Being born again from above that on condition of our faithfulness we may have all our sins forgiven and be accepted in His eternal heavenly kingdom.
    I do believe that Jezebel represents the false church that will bring persecution upon the true church, but in the end she will be destroyed prior to the second coming of Christ.
    Elijah on the other hand represents the true church fearlessly sounding the warn.ings of God to worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of water
    May God bless us all and keep us in the love of Jesus.

  13. golder says

    Hello my personal loved one! I need to state that this particular blog post is awesome, fantastic prepared and include around important infos. I have to discover extra posts in this way .

  14. Evang Amaechi says

    I need that jezebal bible and books to enable me go deep in bible history.this devilish woman is in the church today.i love ur teaching

  15. home says

    You could certainly see your skills within the work you write. The arena hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who are not afraid to say how they believe. Always go after your heart.

  16. Maat says

    Incredible! You know how liars always want to make it seem worst than what it really is to justify their criminal act? Well, that’s what this story seems like to me. You may rebuke my statement, if it makes you feel pious but that story’s got to show me more than that!

  17. Vincent says

    Great piece of literature covers all facets and dimensions of biblical writing.

  18. colette says

    I disagree with the vision of this author concerning Jezebel. It has an anti Semitic under tone and a modern womens liberation tone. The worship of Baal involved orgies in the temples to celebrate fertility. When the women became pregnant from the temple orgies they felt blessed by the gods. Then they sacrificed those children to Baal. So if you want to see her as a women’s Hero go ahead. There is more to History than this Author realizes and should really go back to school or stop writing personal slants on History. Archaeology should be respected.

  19. OneAnswer says

    “This is why she is vilified by the Deuteronomist, whose goal is to stamp out polytheism.” Ummmm no. completely wrong. She was not “vilified”, she was a very evil woman and the “Deuteronomist” was writing down what God inspired him to write. This ignorant statement is so so early in your piece that It is obvious to anyone reading it that you do not understand God’s holy word due to the fact that you do not “know him. You have an agenda.It is to attempt to discredit God’s word and to anyone who is born again, your fruits betray you for who and what you are.

  20. dawn says

    I would suggest the author read Colette’s comment which is 100 percent correct. The little babies were sacrificed and that is what your red eggs stand for at easter. God hates things that kill children. This religion and the related one that Israel adopted where they burnt their children were abominations to God the true one. The murder of the prophets of Baal and her own death are judgments for the murders and the stopping of them recruiting more people into that religion. You also need to look at the long term plan of God for rescuing his people from sin. Jezebel would definately have had sex with many at the orgies at the temple, so she would be classed as a whore by Elijah’s standards, and those who held to the laws of the true God.
    Please study the pagan religions, not from the current fluffy bunny neo pagan perspective.
    You have no understanding because you are not drawn to God yet. I pray that someday you will be.

  21. Mary says

    Hannibal, who crossed the Alps, was a great nephew of Jezebal. They also worshiped Molech who demanded babies be burned to death as a sacrifice. They have recently discovered a huge number of baby and young children’s bones in Carthidge. Sacrifices to Molech, no doubt. She was really not a nice lady, she certainly worshiped Molech, in addition to Baal and others. Many of which had terrible ways to be worshipped, including “Holy” Prostitution, practiced by priestesses, such as she was. This was common at the time for idol worshippers. This was understood and did not need even be mentioned in biblical times, for it was common knowledge. How bad was she? Very bad!

  22. henry says

    the scupture says that there is nothing new under the sun,Jezebel symbolize ROMAN CATHOLIC.

  23. esau gilberto says

    Una.peticion ¿podrian por favor hacer traduccion al español. Por la atencion que esto les merezcs .Gracias.

  24. Hater says


  25. Ryan says

    Clearly the “author (if we can even call her that)” is a Jezebel herself. 1. Jezebel killed all of Yahwehs Prophets, but one, Elijah. He was instructed by Yahweh to “retaliate (eye for an eye),” and to kill the prophets of Baal (Lord God).
    2. Clearly the writer of this pagan BS, is unaware that she calls “Yahweh by the name of Baal (Lord God) throughout her writing,” so it’s clear to see why she would condone wickedness.
    3. Jezebel “usurped Ahabs authority” by eradicating his kingdom of Yahwehs Prophets, so he wouldnt receive Divine Instruction, in “putting her away.” Even as the story goes, Elijahs prophecy against Jezebel is brought to pass, and “she is eaten by dogs.” A fitting end for a murderous pagan woman.
    4. Even Yahshua the Messiah in Revelation to John, declares that Jezebel and her pagan offspring will be slaughtered at the end of days (her pagan offspring are those trying to justify her sins).

  26. Kurt says

    Why Does God Allow the Strong to Oppress the Weak?
    The Bible records some troubling instances of oppression of the weak by the strong. The case of Naboth comes to mind. Ahab, a king of Israel in the tenth century B.C.E., allowed his wife, Jezebel, to have Naboth and his sons killed so that the king could take the man’s vineyard. (1 Kings 21:1-16; 2 Kings 9:26) Why did God allow such a gross abuse of power?
    If Jezebel feared that ownership of the vineyard would pass to Naboth’s heirs, she may have felt driven to arrange for the murder of Naboth’s sons. For a discussion of why God allows such acts of oppression, see the article “Our Readers Ask”

  27. Believer says

    This article is neither biblical nor archeological. Why is it given a platform here BAR? Shame.

  28. Karen says

    I have not read this entire Luciferian Raging Polemic justifying/and,or celebrating a woman whom AllMighty Jehovah labeled as “Wicked and Idolater/Idol Worshipper. By making Jezebel seem like some kind of “Ancient B.C. Feminist Heroine Queen, Of The Blood Royale”. Yes, it’s true that the Old Testament Bible doesn’t give her a 21st or even 20th century pulp non-fiction biography to properly/improperly flesh her out, for human salacious tastes. But make no mistake, God is not picking on Women or oppressing them with a Patriarchal Cult Fanatical Religion bent on maintaining abusive tactics and chauvism against God’s beautiful creation, Woman/Women. God gives shout outs to the believers and calls out the dis-believers. And he recounts the stories of the believers sins, failures and shortcomings with equal vigor with those opposed to God and belief. Those who start out as God’s anointed or believers and then fall away or reject God, are a cautionary tale(ex. Saul, Judas etc.etc.), just as those who are totally opposed or never had a clue about the concept of worship of the true living God Jehovah, who become the most ardent and firm believers(the criminal crucified with Christ/Saul on the Damascus road accepting, then being re-made Paul). Jehovah and Jesus are not picking on people but trying to save them. Jezebel was wicked not because she was a free spirited women of power in a time of total male supremacy. She was labeled wicked because she was anti-Lord God Jehovah. Thereby being Luciferian and in direct oppositiion and rebellion. She sets the template to be also anti-“The Living Word Of God”. Thereby leading directly to the path of apostasy and Anti-Christ. She was so entrenched in her own power and ruthlessness that God gave her an unforgettable end(understatement of this week at least). She was cast down from her palace balcony by an Eunuch. Which for an ancient queen is humiliating enough. But she was also consumed by dogs that left only her hands and feet. They symbolized the hands that fashioned evil and the feet that ran towards it. To spin doctor Jezebel in a reprobate worldly way is a lie from the pit of Hell which is what these false depictions of true evil will lead your eternal soul too if you are an unrepentant sinner. May you all come to the truth and light. May you be Jehovah, Yeshua, Jesus Blessed!

  29. Connie says

    Thank you, Karen. I could not say it better!

    The practice of polytheism is whoredom in worship which belongs only to the One True God. This is why Jezebel is called a whore – had nothing to do with her marriage to Ahab.

  30. Leticia says

    Whoever wrote this article has never lived in a polytheistic world and clearly thinks from a western trained mind. One cannot project and hence interpret a woman’s action who lived 30 centuries ago based on a a western trained mindset of a modern day woman and to do that would leave us, the reader, thinking we have all the answers but all the while leaving us blinded to the world they lived in and the thought processes that drove them in that day and age.

  31. JosephHolyknightVictory says

    The first thing and main reason not mentioned for her evil is Baal worship included “child sacrifice’. So because she stuck to here Il traditions its honorable? Yea how convenient to omit that from your devils propaganda book liberal witch.

  32. Leverag says

    It is clear the author is identifying with Jezebel and feels the need to justify Jezebel’s recorded actions. It is unfortunate that this author hasn’t dealt with the hurts and pains in her own life and because of unforgiveness, is confused about what is good and evil. In the end, thus is not an innocent and new perspective on Jezebel. It is just an attemp to make herself feel accepted and a tool for one fallen angel. just sad.

  33. Moshe says

    This article is highly anachronistic, intellectually dishonest, and forced. It is amazing to me that such an article could even be published given its obvious bias. As I read this article I gleaned that the author’s view of the Israelites is that they are the true criminals in the narrative as she writes: “the Torah shows the Israelites to be an ethnocentric, xenophobic people.” I find this amusing because in the Torah there are more injunctions about not oppressing foreigners than there are for keeping the Sabbath. Just to mention a few: Exodus 22:20, 23:9, Leviticus 19:33-34, (there are many more).

    The author asserts that the fact that Jezebel is true to her pagan beliefs makes her a heroine but that the Israelites, as represented by Elijah, being true to their beliefs are criminals (because they don’t want to be pluralistic). I almost feel like the author could have written the following in her conclusion: “If only the Israelites had developed a pluralistic, democratic society like today’s United States or United Kingdom, Jezebel would be seen in her true light – as a woman fiercely defending her culture and independence trying to bring political and social harmony to a xenophobic and ethnocentric cult.”

    The author’s argument that the political intrigue alluded to in the murder of Naboth as “stretching credulity” only suggests that she is ignorant of global political history. For what it is worth I would recommend she read William L. Shirer’s “The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich” to understand how even the most far-fetched political intrigue can actually happen. There is a quite a bit of it in the history of Nazi Germany and I doubt that political intrigue of that variety first came into existence in the 20th century.

    I also find that for all of the author’s veiled disdain for the Israelites and their allegedly “xenophobic and ethnocentric” culture that she cannot even acknowledge that Ahab’s depression over not securing Naboth’s land results from his inability to be above the law. That’s right, even an Israelite King is not above Divine Law. I would imagine that any progressive individual, such as the author would seem to be, would laud the fact that the king does not act as a tyrant in this regard. Yet the author does not do so and instead shows how Jezebel’s culture, an autocratic culture of tyranny and despotic kings, explains her behavior in setting up the political intrigue. I admit that the author does note that it is not admirable behavior but she also, in her effort to explain Jezebel’s behavior, more or less justifies it. She also minimizes the severity of the crime by simply writing that it is “not admirable” rather than criminal. Jezebel was after all “annoyed” by Naboth who was defying her despotic authority which, being from Phoenicia, she has the right to exercise despite the fact that she is not in Phoenicia but in the Kingdom of Israel which does not allow for rulers to behave this way (at least by Law). The conclusion one might erroneously draw from this line of thinking is that it is only not admirable to murder people that annoy us not really criminal.

    The author accuses Elijah of murder despite the fact that, and this is pointed out by John Locke in his “A Letter Concerning Toleration”, idol worship in Israel is tantamount to treason against the state and treason against the state is often punished, among many nations, with the death penalty. So Elijah is turned into a murderer because he is following Israelite Law which expressly prohibits polytheism, warrants the death penalty and is therefore considered treason against the state. So I guess the Israelites should have allowed themselves to become completely compromised by Phoenician culture and openly allow treason to be committed in their State? I can only infer that the author believes that all sensible nations should allow this since Elijah is presented as having committed murder when he kills the prophets of Ba’al as an agent of the Sovereign of the State (the supreme sovereign is God not Ahab).

    I agree with the author that the text suggests that Jezebel was not unfaithful to her husband. I believe that Jehu’s comment to Joram about Jezebel’s harlotry was meant to demean Joram and the house of Omri/Ahab in general. Alternatively, as the author notes, harlotry could be a semantic term for her idolatrous behavior.

    The truth is I could go on about the holes in this article but I must ask this: Why does the author suggest (albeit indirectly) that the Israelites are murdering criminals for having and being faithful to their own culture and religion? Why are they not allowed the right to determine their own lives according to their own values in their own Kingdom? Why must they tolerate treason against their God and country in their own kingdom? Why is Jezebel, an individual who did not respect Israelite values/law, culture or religion, considered a heroine for undermining Israelite culture and religion within the Kingdom of Israel? Ultimately, what is the author’s motivation in attempting to “Rehabilitat[e] Jezebel’s stained reputation”?

    In Short: Jezebel’s reputation is stained because she did objectively horrible things within the Kingdom of Israel and to the Israelites not because she was a woman nor because she was a foreigner and not because of “Deuteronomistic” propaganda as the author suggests.

  34. patricia says

    Hmm. Unfortunately history and archeology do not bear the entirety of this viewpoint out as expressed in this article though I’d agree with some points of it, like her being handed off like a parcel in a political marriage, or her having developed some significant degree of power . Even in more recent history hundreds of germans supporter Hitler. Like in jezebel’s time, there WAS resistance, but one resisted carefully and covertly if one didn’t want to be killed. Jezebel’s relationship with Ahab sounds like she covertly despised him, which would be understandable if she was handed to him as a political prize; she may have further fueled such feelings by virtue of finding that her perverse ways weren’t acceptable to her husband or his people. She clearly had no problem manipulating him to her own ends. By doing something odious in his name, she would further have widended the breach between him and the Israelite people, perhaps as an attempt to completely eradicate any loyalty he had to Yaweh, and loyalty to his people by driving a wedge between both God and man. Whether Ahab realized it or not, the moment he took possession of Naboth’s vineyard, in the sight of all Israel he was putting his signet ring to her deeds and was willing to benefit from the death of an innocent countryman. Jezebel is not that stupid; she can’t have been ignorant of that fact. She was cunning and shrewd in her manoevering. Another example of a shrewd manipulator in scripture can be found in the person of Jonadab, who by pretending to be supportive of the young man Amnon’s interests, actually set up an innocent young virgin to be violently raped, robbed of her virginity and devasted, and also the king’s son to be guilty of rape and incest and wind up dead. Jonadab was also a friend spelled enemy.

    The cult of Baal involved some pretty gross things including orgies. Young women were expected to serve baal by sacrificing their virginity on a statue with a huge stone phallus, something that for a young girl would likely be an abusive experience, as being raised in that cult, she wouldn’t have had a choice to say no. As with any situation in which perversion runs rampant, it is not outside the realm of possiblity that jezebel had experienced other abuses perhaps rape or molestation or even incest by the time she was of marriageable age. Esp since Ethbaal her father was a priest of baal. Take away all the outward props of pagan religion and you have a young woman sacrificed by her father to perversion and then likely to a marriage to a complete stranger. It is understandable that she would have by then, developed alot of contempt, bitterness, hatred, control issues, inability to trust. She would quite possibly have arrived at adulthood and queendom with a heart full of pain hardened over by hatred and firm resolve. She came by it through no initial fault of her own but that didn’t preclude her from deciding to become like the system that did her harm in order to maintain power and thus, at least in her mind, avoid ever being vulnerable or harmed again. And becoming a queen would have provided her the seeming power to do just that.

    By the time Jehu had killed her, she had murdered many innocent people, and mainstreamed perversion into the land. She was perpetuating the evil done to her.As even the staunchest raidcal feminists will assert, as well as many others of varying stances, abuse is no excuse. Despite her earlier upbringing, she was without excuse; she would have by this time, been aware of actual evidence that the God of Israel was a real God who could be trusted and not just a pagan statue, esp with the prophet regularly interacting with Ahab and telling him God’s words and seeing them come to pass, as well as the other supernatual happenings. She would have known about Naaman the syrian’s healing. This man was one of Israel’s enemies and yet God showed him mercy and healed him. Jezebel would have had this information. There is nothing in scripture that supports the idea that the contest between baal and Yahweh was an all male event. The presence of temple prostitutes would have been likely, as well as women in the group refered to in ” all the people fell down and worshipped saying the Lord He is God” I don’t agree that women had no voice at all. I get that jewish males had a wrong view of women as inferior beings. Its interesting to note that Jesus did not interact with women according to this view and neither did God His Father. Where did Tamar get her voice from when she confronted her rapist over his sin and cried out for justice? From the law of God that would have protected her as innocent, for one thing, had her father king david responded properly; his recent moral failure with Bathsheba likely robbed him of the moral authority to confront the sin of his son. There were a number of examples of wise women whose words were heeded by men, women who were hailed as heros, and women of God who had similar standing as the male pirests like Deborah and Anna the prophetess, so I don’t entirely buy the women had no voice and were totally oppressed package. The Proverbs 31 woman considered a field and bought it. Those are acts of agency. Note that it DOESN”T say ” she asked her husband for permission first”. So no i don’t agree with much of the thrust of this article.

  35. Larry says

    Contrary to common belief, 10, 000 years ago, in Afrika women ruled with their Goddess, priestess, business women, warriors and heritage was passed down from mother to daughter; oh yes, men stayed home and took care of children and if they wanted anything they had to ask the female for it.

    Them came the Indo-Europeans, the Ayrans as they were called, with their
    with their state of the art war tools, horses, chariots, metal shields and spears, etc and violently overthought the matriarchal system and replaced it with their male or patriarchal system. A system of European male domination which is in place to this present day.

    The entire Mediterranean basin, Canaan [present day Jerusalem/Palestine, Babylon, present day Iraq, Sumer present day North Iran, and Kemet present day AfriKa was transformed and women were dehumanized. These Indo-Europeans tore down all signs of female worship and declared inasmuch as they were light skinned and victorious, they were, are you ready for this, “the chosen” people.

    Therefore, Indo-European forced upon the people that women were less than and scandalized such women as jezebel, Lilith, Mary Magdalene and others. We must step back and re-read these ancient and sometime mythological stories of females. Jezebel like so many other females could very well be fine women who remembered the power of females and stood there ground as a child of the CREATOR.

    We in modern time must see the CREATOR spirit as just that, a divine SPIRIT of the universe and view all people are people of worth and value, none greater than the other; none to rule the other, but people who are to live and respect one another.

    Let us not be taken in by ‘chosen people’ as all of us are chosen!

  36. zina says

    Da Izabela nije poražena od Ilije, svjetska istorija bi bila drugačija, tako što ju je ubio, moralizam Jehove sada svijet ima zadovoljstvo. Upravo je civilizacija ugrožena tim moralom Jehove.

  37. Marie says

    I wonder if the author might be able to write without projecting her own ideology and bias into the piece. Men bad and women oppressed. It would have been nice to read what can be learned about Jezebel without the feminist flavor added to it. This is a history website not an opinion forum. Good information, but bad authorship. Stick to the facts please. If you can’t then blogging might be a better outlet.

  38. vanaly says

    well, very interesting, especially the ‘comments’… it was good to know i wasn’t the only one disappointed in the strident women’s lib type view of a really despicable woman.. Athaliah her grand daughter (or perhaps her daughter) killed all the ‘seed royal’ babies and children of the king so that SHE could be queen.. her mother’s daughter for sure… glad many of you pointed out the horror of killing babies and children to ‘honor’ a stone god… Thank y’all for posting…

  39. Anon says

    The author of this article is not accepting the Biblical narrative of how dangerous Jezebel is. Her archetype is the source of much suffering in the world. It goes beyond her gender. Gender has little to do with it. Jezebel is the core “creature” inside. A man or a woman can be like Jezebel. It just so happens the narrative makes her a woman. No need to defend her from a feminist point of view as this author does with many “what if’s” that make her seem heroic and maligned. Jezebel was evil to the core. and one of the most dangerous and rebellious characters in the entire Bible.

    When Jehu rode past Jezebel, he did not talk to her because he knew how deceptive she is. He gave her no power to manipulate him. Instead he talked to her eunuchs, and they threw her over the tower walls. The dogs ate her until very little was left of her.

    That is how you deal with Jezebel. Give her no foothold. Give her no place. Do not emulate or admire her. There are other long suffering, heroic women of the bible to admire. Jezebel was not long suffering. She imparted suffering. She was not maligned. She maligned others. She took and murdered and had no empathy for anyone but herself.

  40. Johnathan says

    Thank God for the comments. The author of this piece is truly a Jezebel and I am sure she is quite proud of being equally deceptive. She is a woman who attempts to recreate Judaism and Christianity in her own image. We live in such dark times and with so many Jezebels in our midst. Nothing comes of it except the murder of babies by self serving Jezebels who worship impotent deities or none at all. May God have mercy on her soul and may he have mercy on the souls of those that are beguiled by her ramblings.

  41. MikeK says

    An excellent article and well worth reading. Thank you.

  42. rose says

    can i download it on my phone, otherwise thanks for showing us the trueth.

  43. JLB says

    I will never again come to or read anything from biblical To allow this garbage to be released to the public exposes the fact that this organization at the very least allows the God of the Bile and the people of the Bible to be undermined and devalued, and at worst to put other “gods” on par with and or potentially above the God (YHWH) of the Bible. There is none like YHWH and all other gods / beliefs / and people groups will bow there knee to the King of kings and the Lord of lords – “Besides Him there is no other”! Finally I want to answer this authors question – “How bad was Jezebel?” – Bad enough to be put to death and burn forever in the lake of fire. It is not Gods will for anyone to perish but for all to come to repentance, but that is the very thing arrogant Jezebel refused to do! The only sin that causes a person never to repent is pride. YHWH through Elijah proved beyond the shadow of a doubt who the One and Only True God is but in her arrogance and desire to manipulate and control the people and world around her she received judgement and wrath instead of God’s forgiveness and grace. I pray in Yashua’s name that the same fate doesn’t befall the author of this article – Janet Howe Gaines! “Unless you repent you to will perish”

  44. LInk says

    The author has the wrong, Jezebel-like values. Loyalty to Yahweh is good. Religious pluralism and idolatry is bad.

  45. Randompersona says

    In modern age of degeneracy , marxism , feminism , is it any surprise to see warnings in ancient texts be interpreted as “OK” or “not that bad actually” material ?

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