Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible

Lawrence Mykytiuk’s feature article from the January/February 2015 issue of BAR with voluminous endnotes

Read Lawrence Mykytiuk’s article “Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible” as it originally appeared in Biblical Archaeology Review, January/February 2015. The article was first republished in Bible History Daily in 2014.—Ed.


THE MAN CHRIST JESUS. Did Jesus of Nazareth exist as a real human being? Outside of the New Testament, what is the evidence for his existence? In this article, author Lawrence Mykytiuk examines the extra-Biblical textual and archaeological evidence associated with the man who would become the central figure in Christianity. Here Jesus is depicted in a vibrant sixth-century C.E. mosaic from the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, Italy. Photo: Sant’Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna, Italy/Bridgeman Images.

After two decades toiling in the quiet groves of academe, I published an article in BAR titled “Archaeology Confirms 50 Real People in the Bible.”a The enormous interest this article generated was a complete surprise to me. Nearly 40 websites in six languages, reflecting a wide spectrum of secular and religious orientations, linked to BAR’s supplementary web page.b Some even posted translations.

I thought about following up with a similar article on people in the New Testament, but I soon realized that this would be so dominated by the question of Jesus’ existence that I needed to consider this question separately. This is that article:1

Did Jesus of Nazareth, who was called Christ, exist as a real human being, “the man Christ Jesus” according to 1 Timothy 2:5?

The sources normally discussed fall into three main categories: (1) classical (that is, Greco-Roman), (2) Jewish and (3) Christian. But when people ask whether it is possible to prove that Jesus of Nazareth actually existed, as John P. Meier pointed out decades ago, “The implication is that the Biblical evidence for Jesus is biased because it is encased in a theological text written by committed believers.2 What they really want to know is: Is there extra-Biblical evidence … for Jesus’ existence?”c

Therefore, this article will cover classical and Jewish writings almost exclusively.3

In the free ebook Who Was Jesus? Exploring the History of Jesus’ Life, examine fundamental questions about Jesus of Nazareth. Where was he really born—Bethlehem or Nazareth? Did he marry? Is there evidence outside of the Bible that proves he actually walked the earth?

Tacitus—or more formally, Caius/Gaius (or Publius) Cornelius Tacitus (55/56–c. 118 C.E.)—was a Roman senator, orator and ethnographer, and arguably the best of Roman historians. His name is based on the Latin word tacitus, “silent,” from which we get the English word tacit. Interestingly, his compact prose uses silence and implications in a masterful way. One argument for the authenticity of the quotation below is that it is written in true Tacitean Latin.4 But first a short introduction.


Roman historian Tacitus. Photo: Bibliotheque nationale, Paris, France / Giraudon / Bridgeman Images.

Tacitus’s last major work, titled Annals, written c. 116–117 C.E., includes a biography of Nero. In 64 C.E., during a fire in Rome, Nero was suspected of secretly ordering the burning of a part of town where he wanted to carry out a building project, so he tried to shift the blame to Christians. This was the occasion for Tacitus to mention Christians, whom he despised. This is what he wrote—the following excerpt is translated from Latin by Robert Van Voorst:


TACIT CONFIRMATION. Roman historian Tacitus’s last major work, Annals, mentions a “Christus” who was executed by Pontius Pilate and from whom the Christians derived their name. Tacitus’s brief reference corroborates historical details of Jesus’ death from the New Testament. The pictured volume of Tacitus’s works is from the turn of the 17th century. The volume’s title page features Plantin Press’s printing mark depicting angels, a compass and the motto Labore et Constantia (“By Labor and Constancy”). Photo: Tacitus, Opera Quae Exstant, trans. by Justus Lipsius (Antwerp, Belgium: Ex officina Plantiniana, apud Joannem Moretum, 1600). Courtesy of the Philadelphia Rare Books & Manuscripts Co. (PRB&M).

[N]either human effort nor the emperor’s generosity nor the placating of the gods ended the scandalous belief that the fire had been ordered [by Nero]. Therefore, to put down the rumor, Nero substituted as culprits and punished in the most unusual ways those hated for their shameful acts … whom the crowd called “Chrestians.” The founder of this name, Christ [Christus in Latin], had been executed in the reign of Tiberius by the procurator Pontius Pilate … Suppressed for a time, the deadly superstition erupted again not only in Judea, the origin of this evil, but also in the city [Rome], where all things horrible and shameful from everywhere come together and become popular.5

Tacitus’s terse statement about “Christus” clearly corroborates the New Testament on certain historical details of Jesus’ death. Tacitus presents four pieces of accurate knowledge about Jesus: (1) Christus, used by Tacitus to refer to Jesus, was one distinctive way by which some referred to him, even though Tacitus mistakenly took it for a personal name rather than an epithet or title; (2) this Christus was associated with the beginning of the movement of Christians, whose name originated from his; (3) he was executed by the Roman governor of Judea; and (4) the time of his death was during Pontius Pilate’s governorship of Judea, during the reign of Tiberius. (Many New Testament scholars date Jesus’ death to c. 29 C.E.; Pilate governed Judea in 26–36 C.E., while Tiberius was emperor 14–37 C.E.6)

Tacitus, like classical authors in general, does not reveal the source(s) he used. But this should not detract from our confidence in Tacitus’s assertions. Scholars generally disagree about what his sources were. Tacitus was certainly among Rome’s best historians—arguably the best of all—at the top of his game as a historian and never given to careless writing.

Earlier in his career, when Tacitus was Proconsul of Asia,7 he likely supervised trials, questioned people accused of being Christians and judged and punished those whom he found guilty, as his friend Pliny the Younger had done when he too was a provincial governor. Thus Tacitus stood a very good chance of becoming aware of information that he characteristically would have wanted to verify before accepting it as true.8


CHRESTIANS OF CHRIST. Book XV of Tacitus’s Annals is preserved in the 11th–12th-century Codex Mediceus II, a collection of medieval manuscripts now housed in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence, Italy, along with other manuscripts and books that belonged to the Medici family. Highlighted above is the Latin text reading “… whom the crowd called ‘Chrestians.’ The founder of this name, Christ, had been executed in the reign of Tiberius by the procurator Pontius Pilate …” Photo: Codex Mediceus 68 II, fol. 38r, the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Italy.

The other strong evidence that speaks directly about Jesus as a real person comes from Josephus, a Jewish priest who grew up as an aristocrat in first-century Palestine and ended up living in Rome, supported by the patronage of three successive emperors. In the early days of the first Jewish Revolt against Rome (66–70 C.E.), Josephus was a commander in Galilee but soon surrendered and became a prisoner of war. He then prophesied that his conqueror, the Roman commander Vespasian, would become emperor, and when this actually happened, Vespasian freed him. “From then on Josephus lived in Rome under the protection of the Flavians and there composed his historical and apologetic writings” (Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz).9 He even took the name Flavius, after the family name of his patron, the emperor Vespasian, and set it before his birth name, becoming, in true Roman style, Flavius Josephus. Most Jews viewed him as a despicable traitor. It was by command of Vespasian’s son Titus that a Roman army in 70 C.E. destroyed Jerusalem and burned the Temple, stealing its contents as spoils of war, which are partly portrayed in the imagery of their gloating triumph on the Arch of Titus in Rome.10 After Titus succeeded his father as emperor, Josephus accepted the son’s imperial patronage, as he did of Titus’s brother and successor, Domitian.

Yet in his own mind, Josephus remained a Jew both in his outlook and in his writings that extol Judaism. At the same time, by aligning himself with Roman emperors who were at that time the worst enemies of the Jewish people, he chose to ignore Jewish popular opinion.

Josephus stood in a unique position as a Jew who was secure in Roman imperial patronage and protection, eager to express pride in his Jewish heritage and yet personally independent of the Jewish community at large. Thus, in introducing Romans to Judaism, he felt free to write historical views for Roman consumption that were strongly at variance with rabbinic views.


Jewish historian Josephus is pictured in the ninth-century medieval manuscript Burgerbibliothek Bern Codex under the Greek caption “Josippos Historiographer.” Photo: Burgerbibliothek Bern Cod. 50, f.2r.

In his two great works, The Jewish War and Jewish Antiquities, both written in Greek for educated people, Josephus tried to appeal to aristocrats in the Roman world, presenting Judaism as a religion to be admired for its moral and philosophical depth. The Jewish War doesn’t mention Jesus except in some versions in likely later additions by others, but Jewish Antiquities does mention Jesus—twice.

The shorter of these two references to Jesus (in Book 20)11 is incidental to identifying Jesus’ brother James,12 the leader of the church in Jerusalem. In the temporary absence of a Roman governor between Festus’s death and governor Albinus’s arrival in 62 C.E., the high priest Ananus instigated James’s execution. Josephus described it:

Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, “sanhedrin”] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah … James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.13

James is otherwise a barely noticed, minor figure in Josephus’s lengthy tome. The sole reason for referring to James at all was that his death resulted in Ananus losing his position as high priest. James (Jacob) was a common Jewish name at this time. Many men named James are mentioned in Josephus’s works, so Josephus needed to specify which one he meant. The common custom of simply giving the father’s name (James, son of Joseph) would not work here, because James’s father’s name was also very common. Therefore Josephus identified this James by reference to his famous brother Jesus. But James’s brother Jesus (Yehoshua) also had a very common name. Josephus mentions at least 12 other men named Jesus.14 Therefore Josephus specified which Jesus he was referring to by adding the phrase “who is called Messiah,” or, since he was writing in Greek, Christos.15 This phrase was necessary to identify clearly first Jesus and, via Jesus, James, the subject of the discussion. This extraneous reference to Jesus would have made no sense if Jesus had not been a real person.

Visit the historical Jesus study page in Bible History Daily to read more free articles on Jesus.


JAMES, BROTHER OF JESUS. In Jewish Antiquities, parts of which are included in this mid-17th-century book of translations, Josephus refers to a James, who is described as “the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah.” Josephus’s mention of Jesus to specify which James was being executed by the high priest Ananus in 62 C.E. affirms the existence of the historical Jesus. Photo: Josephus, Famovs and Memorable Works of Josephvs, trans. by Thomas Lodge (London: J. L. for Andrew Hebb, 1640).

Few scholars have ever doubted the authenticity of this short account. On the contrary, the huge majority accepts it as genuine.16 The phrase intended to specify which Jesus, translated “who is called Christ,” signifies either that he was mentioned earlier in the book or that readers knew him well enough to grasp the reference to him in identifying James. The latter is unlikely. First-century Romans generally had little or no idea who Christus was. It is much more likely that he was mentioned earlier in Jewish Antiquities. Also, the fact that the term “Messiah”/“Christ” is not defined here suggests that an earlier passage in Jewish Antiquities has already mentioned something of its significance.17 This phrase is also appropriate for a Jewish historian like Josephus because the reference to Jesus is a noncommittal, neutral statement about what some people called Jesus and not a confession of faith that actually asserts that he was Christ.

This phrase—“who is called Christ”—is very unlikely to have been added by a Christian for two reasons. First, in the New Testament and in the early Church Fathers of the first two centuries C.E., Christians consistently refer to James as “the brother of the Lord” or “of the Savior” and similar terms, not “the brother of Jesus,” presumably because the name Jesus was very common and did not necessarily refer to their Lord. Second, Josephus’s description in Jewish Antiquities of how and when James was executed disagrees with Christian tradition, likewise implying a non-Christian author.18

This short identification of James by the title that some people used in order to specify his brother gains credibility as an affirmation of Jesus’ existence because the passage is not about Jesus. Rather, his name appears in a functional phrase that is called for by the sense of the passage. It can only be useful for the identification of James if it is a reference to a real person, namely, “Jesus who is called Christ.”

This clear reference to Jesus is sometimes overlooked in debates about Josephus’s other, longer reference to Jesus (to be treated next). Quite a few people are aware of the questions and doubts regarding the longer mention of Jesus, but often this other clear, simple reference and its strength as evidence for Jesus’ existence does not receive due attention.

The longer passage in Josephus’s Jewish Antiquities (Book 18)19 that refers to Jesus is known as the Testimonium Flavianum.

If it has any value in relation to the question of Jesus’ existence, it counts as additional evidence for Jesus’ existence. The Testimonium Flavianum reads as follows; the parts that are especially suspicious because they sound Christian are in italics:20

Around this time there lived Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man.21 For he was one who did surprising deeds, and a teacher of such people as accept the truth gladly. He won over many Jews and many of the Greeks. He was the Messiah. When Pilate, upon hearing him accused by men of the highest standing among us, had condemned him to be crucified, those who in the first place came to love him did not give up their affection for him, for on the third day, he appeared to them restored to life. The prophets of God had prophesied this and countless other marvelous things about him. And the tribe of Christians, so called after him, have still to this day not died out.22

All surviving manuscripts of the Testimonium Flavianum that are in Greek, like the original, contain the same version of this passage, with no significant differences.

The main question is: Did Flavius Josephus write this entire report about Jesus and his followers, or did a forger or forgers alter it or possibly insert the whole report?23 There are three ways to answer this question:24

Alternative 1: The whole passage is authentic, written by Josephus.

Alternative 2: The whole passage is a forgery, inserted into Jewish Antiquities.

Alternative 3: It is only partly authentic, containing some material from Josephus, but also
some later additions by another hand(s).

Regarding Alternative 1, today almost no scholar accepts the authenticity of the entire standard Greek Testimonium Flavianum. In contrast to the obviously Christian statement “He was the Messiah” in the Testimonium, Josephus elsewhere “writes as a passionate advocate of Judaism,” says Josephus expert Steve Mason. “Everywhere Josephus praises the excellent constitution of the Jews, codified by Moses, and declares its peerless, comprehensive qualities … Josephus rejoices over converts to Judaism. In all this, there is not the slightest hint of any belief in Jesus”25 as seems to be reflected in the Testimonium.

The bold affirmation of Jesus as Messiah reads as a resounding Christian confession that echoes St. Peter himself!26 It cannot be Josephus. Alternative 1 is clearly out.

Regarding Alternative 2—the whole Testimonium Flavianum is a forgery—this is very unlikely. What is said, and the expressions in Greek that are used to say it, despite a few words that don’t seem characteristic of Josephus, generally fit much better with Josephus’s writings than with Christian writings.27 It is hypothetically possible that a forger could have learned to imitate Josephus’s style or that a reviser adjusted the passage to that style, but such a deep level of attention, based on an extensive, detailed reading of Josephus’s works and such a meticulous adoption of his vocabulary and style, goes far beyond what a forger or a reviser would need to do.

Even more important, the short passage (treated above) that mentions Jesus in order to identify James appears in a later section of the book (Book 20) and implies that Jesus was mentioned previously.

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THE TESTIMONY OF JOSEPHUS. This 15th-century manuscript, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, contains the portion of Josephus’s Testimonium Flavianum that refers to Jesus (highlighted in blue). The first sentence of the manuscript, highlighted in green, reads, from the Greek, “Around this time there lived Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man.” The majority of scholars believe this passage of the Testimonium is based on the original writings of Josephus but contains later additions, likely made by Christian scribes. Photo: Codex Parisinus gr. 2075, 45v. Courtesy Bibliothèque Nationale de France.

The best-informed among the Romans understood Christus to be nothing more than a man’s personal name, on the level of Publius and Marcus. First-century Romans generally had no idea that calling someone “Christus” was an exalted reference, implying belief that he was the chosen one, God’s anointed. The Testimonium, in Book 18, appropriately found in the section that deals with Pilate’s time as governor of Judea,28 is apparently one of Josephus’s characteristic digressions, this time occasioned by mention of Pilate. It provides background for Josephus’s only other written mention of Jesus (in Book 20), and it connects the name Jesus with his Christian followers. The short reference to Jesus in the later book depends on the longer one in the earlier (Book 18). If the longer one is not genuine, this passage lacks its essential background. Alternative 2 should be rejected.

Alternative 3—that the Testimonium Flavianum is based on an original report by Josephus29 that has been modified by others, probably Christian scribes, seems most likely. After extracting what appear to be Christian additions, the remaining text appears to be pure Josephus. As a Romanized Jew, Josephus would not have presented these beliefs as his own. Interestingly, in three openly Christian, non-Greek versions of the Testimonium Flavianum analyzed by Steve Mason, variations indicate changes were made by others besides Josephus.30 The Latin version says Jesus “was believed to be the Messiah.” The Syriac version is best translated, “He was thought to be the Messiah.” And the Arabic version with open coyness suggests, “He was perhaps the Messiah concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders.” Alternative 3 has the support of the overwhelming majority of scholars.

We can learn quite a bit about Jesus from Tacitus and Josephus, two famous historians who were not Christian. Almost all the following statements about Jesus, which are asserted in the New Testament, are corroborated or confirmed by the relevant passages in Tacitus and Josephus. These independent historical sources—one a non-Christian Roman and the other Jewish—confirm what we are told in the Gospels:31

1. He existed as a man. The historian Josephus grew up in a priestly family in first-century Palestine and wrote only decades after Jesus’ death. Jesus’ known associates, such as Jesus’ brother James, were his contemporaries. The historical and cultural context was second nature to Josephus. “If any Jewish writer were ever in a position to know about the non-existence of Jesus, it would have been Josephus. His implicit affirmation of the existence of Jesus has been, and still is, the most significant obstacle for those who argue that the extra-Biblical evidence is not probative on this point,” Robert Van Voorst observes.32 And Tacitus was careful enough not to report real executions of nonexistent people.

2. His personal name was Jesus, as Josephus informs us.

3. He was called Christos in Greek, which is a translation of the Hebrew word Messiah, both of which mean “anointed” or “(the) anointed one,” as Josephus states and Tacitus implies, unaware, by reporting, as Romans thought, that his name was Christus.

4. He had a brother named James (Jacob), as Josephus reports.

5. He won over both Jews and “Greeks” (i.e., Gentiles of Hellenistic culture), according to Josephus, although it is anachronistic to say that they were “many” at the end of his life. Large growth
in the number of Jesus’ actual followers came only after his death.

6. Jewish leaders of the day expressed unfavorable opinions about him, at least according to some versions of the Testimonium Flavianum.

7. Pilate rendered the decision that he should be executed, as both Tacitus and Josephus state.

8. His execution was specifically by crucifixion, according to Josephus.

9. He was executed during Pontius Pilate’s governorship over Judea (26–36 C.E.), as Josephus implies and Tacitus states, adding that it was during Tiberius’s reign.

Some of Jesus’ followers did not abandon their personal loyalty to him even after his crucifixion but submitted to his teaching. They believed that Jesus later appeared to them alive in accordance with prophecies, most likely those found in the Hebrew Bible. A well-attested link between Jesus and Christians is that Christ, as a term used to identify Jesus, became the basis of the term used to identify his followers: Christians. The Christian movement began in Judea, according to Tacitus. Josephus observes that it continued during the first century. Tacitus deplores the fact that during the second century it had spread as far as Rome.

As far as we know, no ancient person ever seriously argued that Jesus did not exist.33 Referring to the first several centuries C.E., even a scholar as cautious and thorough as Robert Van Voorst freely observes, “… [N]o pagans and Jews who opposed Christianity denied Jesus’ historicity or even questioned it.”34

Nondenial of Jesus’ existence is particularly notable in rabbinic writings of those first several centuries C.E.: “… [I]f anyone in the ancient world had a reason to dislike the Christian faith, it was the rabbis. To argue successfully that Jesus never existed but was a creation of early Christians would have been the most effective polemic against Christianity … [Yet] all Jewish sources treated Jesus as a fully historical person … [T]he rabbis … used the real events of Jesus’ life against him” (Van Voorst).35

Thus his birth, ministry and death occasioned claims that his birth was illegitimate and that he performed miracles by evil magic, encouraged apostasy and was justly executed for his own sins. But they do not deny his existence.36

Check out the web-exclusive supplement to Lawrence Mykytiuk’s “Archaeology Confirms 50 Real People in the Bible” feature from the March/April 2014 issue of BAR >>

Lucian of Samosata (c. 115–200 C.E.) was a Greek satirist who wrote The Passing of Peregrinus, about a former Christian who later became a famous Cynic and revolutionary and died in 165 C.E. In two sections of Peregrinus—here translated by Craig A. Evans—Lucian, while discussing Peregrinus’s career, without naming Jesus, clearly refers to him, albeit with contempt in the midst of satire:

It was then that he learned the marvelous wisdom of the Christians, by associating with their priests and scribes in Palestine. And— what else?—in short order he made them look like children, for he was a prophet, cult leader, head of the congregation and everything, all by himself. He interpreted and explained some of their books, and wrote many himself. They revered him as a god, used him as a lawgiver, and set him down as a protector—to be sure, after that other whom they still worship, the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult into the world.37

For having convinced themselves that they are going to be immortal and live forever, the poor wretches despise death and most even willingly give themselves up. Furthermore, their first lawgiver persuaded them that they are all brothers of one another after they have transgressed once for all by denying the Greek gods and by worshiping that crucified sophist himself and living according to his laws.38

Although Lucian was aware of the Christians’ “books” (some of which might have been parts of the New Testament), his many bits of misinformation make it seem very likely that he did not read them. The compound term “priests and scribes,” for example, seems to have been borrowed from Judaism, and indeed, Christianity and Judaism were sometimes confused among classical authors.

Lucian seems to have gathered all of his information from sources independent of the New Testament and other Christian writings. For this reason, this writing of his is usually valued as independent evidence for the existence of Jesus.

This is true despite his ridicule and contempt for Christians and their “crucified sophist.” “Sophist” was a derisive term used for cheats or for teachers who only taught for money. Lucian despised Christians for worshiping someone thought to be a criminal worthy of death and especially despised “the man who was crucified.”

▸ Celsus, the Platonist philosopher, considered Jesus to be a magician who made exorbitant claims.39

▸ Pliny the Younger, a Roman governor and friend of Tacitus, wrote about early Christian worship of Christ “as to a god.”40

▸ Suetonius, a Roman writer, lawyer and historian, wrote of riots in 49 C.E. among Jews in Rome which might have been about Christus but which he thought were incited by “the instigator Chrestus,” whose identification with Jesus is not completely certain.41

▸ Mara bar Serapion, a prisoner of war held by the Romans, wrote a letter to his son that described “the wise Jewish king” in a way that seems to indicate Jesus but does not specify his identity.42

Other documentary sources are doubtful or irrelevant.43

One can label the evidence treated above as documentary (sometimes called literary) or as archaeological. Almost all sources covered above exist in the form of documents that have been copied and preserved over the course of many centuries, rather than excavated in archaeological digs. Therefore, although some writers call them archaeological evidence, I prefer to say that these truly ancient texts are ancient documentary sources, rather than archaeological discoveries.

Some ossuaries (bone boxes) have come to light that are inscribed simply with the name Jesus (Yeshu or Yeshua‘ in Hebrew), but no one suggests that this was Jesus of Nazareth. The name Jesus was very common at this time, as was Joseph. So as far as we know, these ordinary ossuaries have nothing to do with the New Testament Jesus. Even the ossuary from the East Talpiot district of Jerusalem, whose inscription is translated “Yeshua‘, son of Joseph,” does not refer to him.44

As for the famous James ossuary first published in 2002,d whose inscription is translated “Jacob, son of Joseph, brother of Yeshua‘,” more smoothly rendered, “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus,” it is unprovenanced, and it will likely take decades to settle the matter of whether it is authentic. Following well established, sound methodology, I do not base conclusions on materials whose authenticity is uncertain, because they might be forged.45 Therefore the James ossuary, which is treated in many other publications, is not included here.46

As a final observation: In New Testament scholarship generally, a number of specialists consider the question of whether Jesus existed to have been finally and conclusively settled in the affirmative. A few vocal scholars, however, still deny that he ever lived.47

“Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible” by Lawrence Mykytiuk originally appeared in the January/February 2015 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review. The article was first republished in Bible History Daily on December 8, 2014.

lawrence-mykytiukLawrence Mykytiuk is associate professor of library science and the history librarian at Purdue University. He holds a Ph.D. in Hebrew and Semitic Studies and is the author of the book Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200–539 B.C.E. (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2004).



a. Lawrence Mykytiuk, “Archaeology Confirms 50 Real People in the Bible,” BAR, March/April 2014.

b. See biblicalarchaeology.org/50.

c. John P. Meier, “The Testimonium,” Bible Review, June 1991.

d. See André Lemaire, “Burial Box of James the Brother of Jesus,” BAR, November/December 2002; Hershel Shanks, “‘Brother of Jesus’ Inscription Is Authentic!” BAR, July/August 2012.

1. I gratefully dedicate this article to my brother, Thomas S. Mykytiuk, to the memory of his wife, Nancy E. Mykytiuk, and to their growing tribe of descendants. I wish to thank Dr. Stuart D. Robertson of Purdue University, a Josephus scholar who studied under the great Louis H. Feldman, for kindly offering his comments on an early draft of this article. As the sole author, I alone am responsible for all of this article’s errors and shortcomings.

The previous BAR article is supplemented by two more persons, officials of Nebuchadnezzar II, mentioned in the “Queries and Comments” section, BAR, July/August 2014, bringing the actual total to 52. That previous article is based on my own research, because few other researchers had worked toward the twin goals I sought: first, developing the necessary methodology, and second, applying that methodology comprehensively to archaeological materials that relate to the Hebrew Bible. In contrast, this article treats an area that has already been thoroughly researched, so I have gleaned material from the best results previously obtained (may the reader pardon the many quotations).

Another contrast is that the challenge in the research that led to the previous article was to determine whether the inscriptions (down to 400 B.C.E.) actually referred to the Biblical figure. In the present article, most of the documents very clearly refer to the Jesus of the New Testament. Only in relatively few instances, such as some rabbinic texts, is the reference very unclear. The challenge in this article has been to evaluate the relative strength of the documents about Jesus as evidence, while keeping in mind whether they are independent of the New Testament.

2. Of course, the New Testament is actually a small library of texts, as is the Hebrew Bible.

3. Because Meier only covered writings of the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, his article stays within the first century. This article covers writings that originated in the first several centuries C.E. These non-Christian sources deserve to be welcomed and examined by anyone interested in the historical aspect of Scripture. At the same time, Christian sources found in the New Testament and outside of it have great value as historical evidence and are not to be discounted or dismissed.

The Gospels, for example, are loosely parallel to writings by members of a Prime Minister’s or President’s cabinet, in that they are valuable for the firsthand information they provide from inner circles (F. F. Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament, Knowing Christianity [London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1974], pp. 14–15). While allowance must be made for human limitations (at least lack of omniscience) and bias (such as loyalty to a particular person or deity), no good historian would completely discard them.

An example that is more to the point is Bart D. Ehrman’s strong affirmation of Jesus’ existence in his Did Jesus Exist? (New York: HarperOne, 2012), pp. 142–174. It is based on New Testament data and is noteworthy for its down-to-earth perception. Ehrman bases his conclusion that Jesus existed on two facts: first, that the apostle Paul was personally acquainted with Jesus’ brother James and with the apostle Peter; and second, that, contrary to Jewish messianic expectation of the day, Jesus was crucified (Did Jesus Exist?, p. 173).

In the last analysis, all evidence from all sources must be considered. Both Biblical and non-Biblical sources “are in principle of equal value in the study of Jesus” (Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz, The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive Guide [Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998], p. 23). An excellent, up-to-date resource on both Christian and non-Christian sources is Craig A. Evans, ed., Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus (New York: Routledge, 2008).

4. “As Norma Miller delightfully remarks, ‘The well-intentioned pagan glossers of ancient texts do not normally express themselves in Tacitean Latin,’ and the same could be said of Christian interpolators” (Norma P. Miller, Tacitus: Annals XV [London: Macmillan, 1971], p. xxviii, quoted in Robert E. Van Voorst, Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence [Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000], p. 43).

5. Annals XV.44, as translated in Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, pp. 42–43. Instead of the better-documented reading, “Chrestians,” the word “Christians” appears in a more traditional translation by Alfred J. Church and William J. Brodribb, Annals of Tacitus (London: Macmillan, 1882), pp. 304–305, and in an even earlier edition, which appears at www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Tacitus_on_Christ.html.

6. Along with these corroborations, Tacitus’s statement also contains difficulties that might cause concern. Three that I consider the most important are treated in this note. Although debates will continue, proper use of historical background offers reasonable, tenable solutions that we may hold with confidence while remaining open to new evidence and new interpretations if they are better. Every approach has difficulties to explain. I prefer those that come with this article’s approach, because I consider them smaller and more easily resolved than the problems of other approaches.

First, it is common for scholars to observe that Pontius Pilate’s official title when he governed Judaea (26/27–36 C.E.) was not procurator, as in the quotation from Tacitus above, but praefectus (in Latin, literally, “placed in charge”; in English, prefect), as stated on the “Pilate stone” discovered in 1961. This stone was lying in the ruins of the theater in the ancient city of Caesarea Maritima, on Israel’s northern seacoast. The stone had been trimmed down to be re-used twice, so the first part of the title is broken off, but the title is not in doubt. With square brackets marking missing letters that scholars have filled in, two of its four lines read “[Po]ntius Pilate . . . [Pref]ect of Juda[ea]”:


The inscription could potentially be dated to any time in Pilate’s career, but a date between 31 and 36 C.E. seems most likely. See Clayton Miles Lehmann and Kenneth G. Holum, The Greek and Latin Inscriptions of Caesarea Maritima, Joint Expedition to Caesarea Excavation Reports V (Boston: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2000), pp. 67–70, no. 43, p. 249 Pl. XXVI.

The family name Pontius was common in some parts of Italy during that era, but the name Pilatus was “extremely rare” (A. N. Sherwin-White, “Pilate, Pontius,” in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, vol. 3 [Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1986], p. 867). Because of the rarity of the name Pilatus and because only one Pontius Pilatus was ever the Roman governor of Judea, this identification should be regarded as completely certain.

It is possible that “procurator” in the quotation above is a simple error, but the historical background reveals that it is not so much an error as it is an anachronism—something placed out of its proper time, whether intentionally or by accident. As emperor until 14 C.E., Augustus gave governors of western and southern Judea the title praefectus. But later, Claudius (r. 41–54 C.E.) began conferring the title procurator pro legato, “procurator acting as legate” on new provincial governors. A procurator, literally, “caretaker,” was a steward who managed financial affairs on behalf of the owner. Roman governmental procurators managed taxes and estates on behalf of the emperor and had administrative duties. The English verb to procure is derived from the same root.

From then on, the title procurator replaced praefectus in many Roman provinces, including Judea. “So the early governors of western and southern Judea, after it became a Roman province in A.D. 6, were officially entitled praefecti. Later writers, however, usually referred to them anachronistically as procurators or the Greek equivalent …” (A. N. Sherwin-White, “Procurator,” in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, p. 979.)

Writing in 116 or 117 C.E., Tacitus, who was above all a careful writer, might have intentionally chosen to use the then-current title procurator in keeping with the anachronistic way of speaking that was common in his day. Even today, we accept titles used anachronistically. One might read comparable statements about “U.S. Secretaries of Defense from Henry Stimson during World War II to Chuck Hagel,” even though Stimson’s actual title was Secretary of War, and the current title is Secretary of Defense. Readers who are unfamiliar with Stimson’s title would nevertheless understand which position he held in the government.

Whether procurator was used intentionally or not, in effect this anachronistic term helped readers quickly understand Pilate’s official position and avoided confusing people who were not familiar with the older title.

The second difficulty is that Tacitus’s word for “Christians” is spelled two different ways in existing Latin manuscripts of Annals: both Christianoi and Chrestianoi. The name Chrestus, meaning “good, kind, useful, beneficent,” was commonly given to slaves who served Roman masters. In spoken conversation, people in Rome could easily have mistakenly heard the Latinized foreign word Christus as the familiar name Chrestus. Chrestianoi, “good, kind, useful ones,” is found in the oldest surviving manuscript of this passage in Tacitus.

[T]he original hand of the oldest surviving manuscript, the Second Medicean (eleventh century), which is almost certainly the source of all other surviving manuscripts, reads Chrestianoi, “Chrestians.” A marginal gloss “corrects” it to Christianoi. Chrestianoi is to be preferred as the earliest and most difficult reading and is adopted by the three current critical editions and the recent scholarship utilizing them. It also makes better sense in context. Tacitus is correcting, in a way typical of his style of economy, the misunderstanding of the “crowd” (vulgus) by stating that the founder of this name (auctor nominis eius) is Christus, not the name implicitly given by the crowd, Chrestus. Tacitus could have written auctor superstitionis, “the founder of this superstition,” or something similar, but he calls attention by his somewhat unusual phrase to the nomen [name] of the movement in order to link it directly—and correctly—to the name of Christ (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, pp. 43–44. See also John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, vol. 1: The Roots of the Problem and the Person, Anchor Bible Reference Library [New York: Doubleday, 1991], p. 100, note 7.).

It is very common for ancient classical writings to be represented by manuscripts that were copied many centuries later. For example, the earliest manuscript of the Odyssey is from the 900s C.E., yet it is traditionally ascribed to the blind Greek poet Homer, who is dated variously from about the 800s to the 500s B.C.E., roughly 1,400 to 1,700 years earlier. Similarly, it is not unusual for the earliest surviving manuscripts of various works of the Greek philosopher Plato to date from over 1,000 years after he wrote.

For a technical, critical discussion of Christus and Chrestus in English, see Robert Renahan, “Christus or Chrestus in Tacitus?” Past and Present 23 (1968), pp. 368–370.

The third difficulty is more apparent than real: Why did it take about 85 years for a classical author such as Tacitus to write about Jesus, whose crucifixion occurred c. 29 C.E.? (The A.D. system, devised by the Christian Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus [“Dennis the Small”] in the 525 C.E. and used in our present-day calendar, was not perfectly set on the exact year of Jesus’ birth, though it was close. As a result, Jesus was born within the years we now refer to as 6 to 4 B.C.E. That would put the beginning of his ministry, around age 30 (Luke 3:23), at c. 25 C.E. In the widely held view that Jesus’ ministry lasted 3.5 years before his death, a reasonable date for the crucifixion is c. 29 C.E.)

The following two observations made by F. F. Bruce are relevant to works by Tacitus and by several other classical writers who mention Jesus:

1. Surprisingly few classical writings, comparatively speaking, survive from the period of about the first 50 years of the Christian church (c. 29 to 80 C.E.). (Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins, p. 17.)

2. Roman civilization paid almost no attention to obscure religious leaders in faraway places, such as Jesus in Judea—just as today’s Western nations pay almost no attention to religious leaders in remote parts of the world, unless the national interest is involved. Rome became concerned only when Christians grew numerous. (Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins, pp. 17–18. For thorough discussion, see Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, pp. 68–71.)

A time factor that affects Tacitus in particular is:

3. In the Annals, the reference to Jesus appears only in connection with the cruel treatment of Christians in Rome by Nero, as part of a biography of Nero (d. 68 C.E.). By happenstance, Tacitus did not get around to composing Nero’s biography until the last group of narratives he wrote before he died. A writer for most of his life, Tacitus began with works on oratory, ethnography of German tribes and other subjects. His book Histories, written c. 100–110, which covers the reigns of later Roman emperors after Nero, was actually written before his book Annals, which covers the earlier reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. Thus Tacitus wrote his biography of Nero at the end of his career.

7. Asia was the name of a Roman province in what is now western Turkey (Asia Minor).

8. Perhaps he compared it to Roman records, whether in general governmental archives or in records concerning various religions. I have read one analysis by an author who arbitrarily assumes that Tacitus got his information only from Christians—no other source. Then, on the sole basis of the author’s own assumption, the analysis completely dismisses Tacitus’s clear historical statement about “Christus.” This evaluation is based on opinion, not evidence. It also undervalues Tacitus’s very careful writing and his discernment as a historian. He likely had access to some archives through his status, either as Proconsul of Asia, as a senator—or, as is often overlooked, from his connections as a high-ranking priest of Roman religion. In 88 C.E., he became “a member of the Quindecimviri Sacris Faciundis [“The Board of Fifteen for Performing Sacrifices”], the priestly organization charged, among other things, with … supervising the practice of officially tolerated foreign cults in the city … [and facing] the growing necessity to distinguish illicit Christianity from licit Judaism” (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 52), or, given Jewish resistance to oppressive measures taken by Rome, at least to keep a close watch on developments within Judaism. Indeed, “a Roman archive … is particularly suggested by the note of the temporary suppression of the superstition, which indicates an official perspective” (Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, p. 83). Membership in this priestly regulatory group very likely gave Tacitus access to at least some of the accurate knowledge he possessed about Christus. With characteristic brevity, he reported the facts as he understood them, quickly dismissing the despised, executed Christus from the Annals (see Meier, Marginal Jew, vol. 1, p. 90).

Tacitus himself tells us … that in 88 [C.E.] both in his capacity as priest of the college of quindecimviri sacris faciundis and as a praetor he had been present at and had paid close attention to the ludi saeculares [“secular games”] celebrated by Domitian in that year… [Annals, XI.11, 3–4]. It rather sounds as if he took his religious office seriously …

Tacitus presents himself as a man concerned to preserve traditional Roman religious practice, convinced that when religious matters are allowed to slide or are completely disregarded, the gods will vent their anger on the Roman people to correct their error. What on his view angers the gods is not so much failure to observe the niceties of ritual practice, as disdain for the moral order that the gods uphold” (Matthew W. Dickie, “Magic in the Roman Historians,” in Richard Lindsay Gordon and Francisco Marco Simón, eds., Magical Practice in the Latin West: Papers from the International Conference Held at the University of Zaragoza, 30 Sept. – 1st Oct. 2005, Religions in the Greco-Roman World, vol. 168 [Leiden: Brill, 2010], pp. 82, 83).

Tacitus was in his twenties in 79 C.E., when an eruption of Mt. Vesuvius annihilated the city of Pompeii. One can reasonably suppose how he might have interpreted this disaster in relation to the Roman gods.

9. Quoted from Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, p. 64.

10. Titus’s troops captured and treated as war booty the sacred menorah that had stood in the holy place inside the Temple. See articles on the menorah as depicted on the Arch of Titus, in Yeshiva University’s Arch of Titus Digital Restoration Project, etc., at yeshiva.academia.edu/StevenFine/Menorah-Arch-of-Titus-Digital-Restoration-Project.

11. Jewish Antiquities, XX.200 (or, in Whiston’s translation of Jewish Antiquities, XX.9.1).

12. James’s name was actually Jacob. Odd as it may seem, the English name James is ultimately derived from the Hebrew name Jacob.

13. Jewish Antiquities, XX.9.1 in Whiston’s translation (§200 in scholarly editions), as translated by Meier, Marginal Jew, vol. 1, p. 57. Meier’s original passage includes the phrases in square brackets [ ]. The omitted words indicated by the ellipsis (…) are in Greek, to let scholars know what words are translated into English.

14. Winter asserts that Josephus mentions about twelve others named Jesus. Feldman puts that number at 21. See Paul Winter, “Excursus II: Josephus on Jesus and James: Ant. xviii 3, 3 (63–64) and xx 9,1 (200–203),” in Emil Schürer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, 3 vols., rev. and ed. by Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar, Matthew Black and Martin Goodman (Edinburgh: Clark, 1973–1987), vol. 1, p. 431; Louis H. Feldman, “Introduction,” in Louis H. Feldman and Gohei Hata, eds., Josephus, Judaism, and Christianity (Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1987), p. 56.

15. See Meier, Marginal Jew, vol. 1, pp. 57–58. Messiah, the Hebrew term for “anointed (one),” came through Greek translation (Christos) into English as Christ.

16. See Meier, Marginal Jew, vol. 1, p. 59, note 12; pp. 72–73, note 12.

17. Richard T. France, The Evidence for Jesus, The Jesus Library (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1986), p. 26.

18. Josephus says James was executed by stoning before the Jewish War began, but Christian tradition says he was executed during the Jewish War by being thrown from a height of the Temple, then, after an attempt to stone him was prevented, finally being clubbed to death. See Meier, Marginal Jew, vol. 1, p. 58.

19. XVIII.63–64 (in Whiston’s translation: XVIII.3.1).

20. It was modern scholar John P. Meier who put these passages in italics.

21. Christians believe that Jesus was fully human, but also fully Divine, having two natures in one person. To refer to him as “a wise man,” as the earlier part of the sentence does, would seem incomplete to a Christian. This clause seems intended to lead toward the two boldly Christian statements that come later.

22. This straightforward translation from Greek, in which I have italicized three phrases, is by Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, pp. 65–66.

In his Bible Review article (Meier, “The Testimonium,” Bible Review, June 1991, p. 23), John P. Meier subtracts these three apparently Christian portions from the Testimonium. What remains is a very plausible suggestion, possibly the authentic, smoothly flowing report written by Flavius Josephus—or very close to it. Here is the remainder:

Around this time there lived Jesus, a wise man. For he was one who did surprising deeds, and a teacher of such people as accept the truth gladly. He won over many Jews and many of the Greeks. When Pilate, upon hearing him accused by men of the highest standing among us, had condemned him to be crucified, those who in the first place came to love him did not give up their affection for him. And the tribe of Christians, so called after him, have still to this day not died out (Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, pp. 65–66, after deleting the apparent Christian additions as Meier would).

23. Regarding differing religious convictions of readers that have generated disagreements about this passage at least since medieval times, see Alice Whealey, Josephus on Jesus: The Testimonium Flavianum Controversy from Late Antiquity to Modern Times, Studies in Biblical Literature, vol. 36 (New York: Peter Lang, 2003). Whealey’s observations in her conclusion, pp. 203–207, may be summarized as follows:

In the High Middle Ages (c. 1050–1350), Jewish scholars claimed it was a Christian forgery that was inserted into Josephus’s text, and Christians simply claimed it was entirely authentic. The problem was that with few exceptions, both sides argued from a priori assumptions with no critical examination of evidence. In the late 1500s and the 1600s, some Protestant scholars made the public charge of forgery. By the mid-1700s, based on textual evidence, scholarly opinion had rejected the authenticity of the Testimonium Flavianum and the controversy largely ended for over two centuries.

Twentieth-century scholars, however, revived the controversy on the basis of “new” variations of the text and whole works from ancient times that had been overlooked. Instead of the generally Protestant character of the earlier controversy, the controversy that began in the twentieth century is “more academic and less sectarian … marked by the presence of Jewish scholars for the first time as prominent participants on both sides of the question, and in general the attitudes of Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, and secular scholars towards the text have drawn closer together” (p. 206).

24. Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, p. 65–69. Meier, “The Testimonium,” Bible Review, June 1991, gives the third answer.

25. Steve Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, 2nd ed. (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003), p. 229.

26. Matthew 16:16; Mark 8:29; Luke 9:20.

27. According to Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, pp. 66–67, unless otherwise noted, these phrases that are characteristic of Josephus include: 1) Calling Jesus “a wise man” and calling his miracles “surprising deeds”; 2) Use of one of Josephus’s favorite phrases, “accept the truth gladly,” that in the “gladly” part includes the Greek word for “pleasure” which for Christian writers of this era, as a rule, had a bad connotation; 3) The reference to attracting “many of the Greeks” (meaning Hellenistic Gentiles), which fits better with Rome in Josephus’s time than with the references to Gentiles in the Gospels, which are few (such as John 12:20–22). On the style being that of Josephus, see also Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, pp. 89–91; 4) “The execution of Jesus by Pilate on the denunciation of the Jewish authorities shows acquaintance with legal conditions in Judaea and contradicts the tendency of the Christian reports of the trial of Jesus, which incriminate the Jews but play down Pilate’s responsibility” (Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, p. 67); 5) Calling Christians a “tribe” tends to show a Jewish perspective.

28. On whether the Testimonium Flavianum interrupts the structure of its literary context, see Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, pp. 67–68, under “The interpolation hypothesis.” They describe E. Norden’s analysis (in German) of the context in Jewish Antiquities. Also see France, Evidence for Jesus, pp. 27–28, which mentions that Josephus’s typical sequencing includes digressions. Josephus’s key vocabulary regarding revolts is absent from the section on Jesus, perhaps removed by a Christian copyist who refused to perpetuate Josephus’s portrayal of Jesus as a real or potential rebel political leader.

29. Various scholars have suggested that Josephus’s original text took a hostile view of Jesus, but others, that it took a neutral to slightly positive view of him. See Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, pp. 68–71 (hostile views) and pp. 71–74 (neutral to slightly positive views).

30. Josephus scholar Steve Mason observes, “Long after Eusebius, in fact, the text of the testimonium remained fluid. Jerome (342–420), the great scholar who translated the Bible and some of Eusebius into Latin, gives a version that agrees closely with standard text, except that the crucial phrase says of Jesus, ‘He was believed to be the Messiah’” (Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, p. 230, italics his. A decades-long, simmering debate continues about whether Jerome’s translation accurately represents what Josephus wrote.).

Besides Jerome’s Latin version, other examples of variation in manuscripts that are mentioned by Mason include an Arabic rendering and a version in Syriac. The Syriac language developed from Aramaic and is the (or an) official language of some branches of Orthodox Christianity.

A passage in a tenth-century Arabic Christian manuscript written by a man named Agapius appears to be a version of the Testimonium Flavianum. Shlomo Pines gives the following translation from the Arabic:

Similarly Josephus [Yūsīfūs] the Hebrew. For he says that in the treatises that he has written on the governance [?] of the Jews: ‘At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. His conduct was good, and [he] was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and the other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. But those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his crucifixion and that he was alive; accordingly, he was perhaps the Messiah concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders.

This is what is said by Josephus and his companions of our Lord the Messiah, may he be glorified (Shlomo Pines, An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and Its Implications [Jerusalem: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1971), pp. 8–10).

Feldman thinks that Agapius mixed in source material from writers besides Josephus and provided “a paraphrase, rather than a translation” (Louis H. Feldman, Josephus and Modern Scholarship, 1937–1980 [New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1984], p. 701). John P. Meier tends not to attribute much significance to Agapius’s description of the Testimonium Flavianum; see Meier, Marginal Jew, vol. 1, pp. 78–79, note 37.

Of the three apparently Christian portions that are italicized in the translation of the Greek text above, the first is missing, and the other two are phrased as neutral statements (“they reported” he was alive, “he was perhaps” the Messiah), rather than as affirmations of Christian faith, such as, “He was” the Messiah, “He appeared” alive again.

Mason also refers to Pines’s translation of a version in Syriac found in the writings of Michael, the Patriarch of Antioch:

The writer Josephus also says in his work on the institutions of the Jews: In these times there was a wise man named Jesus, if it is fitting for us to call him a man. For he was a worker of glorious deeds and a teacher of truth. Many from among the Jews and the nations became his disciples. He was thought to be the Messiah. But not according to the testimony of the principal [men] of [our] nation. Because of this, Pilate condemned him to the cross, and he died. For those who had loved him did not cease to love him. He appeared to them alive after three days. For the prophets of God had spoken with regard to him of such marvelous [as these]. And the people of the Christians, named after him, has not disappeared till [this] day” (Pines, Arabic Version, pp. 26–27).

Pines adds a note about the Syriac text of the sentence “He was thought to be the Messiah”: “This sentence may also be translated Perhaps he was the Messiah.”

These Latin, Arabic and Syriac versions most likely represent genuine, alternative textual traditions. “The Christian dignitaries who innocently report these versions as if they came from Josephus had no motive, it seems, to weaken their testimony to Jesus” (Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, p. 231). Actually, Christians tended to make references to Jesus more glorious. Nor is there any indication that anti-Christian scribes reduced the references to Jesus from glorious to mundane, which would likely have been accompanied by disparagement. “It seems probable, therefore, that the versions of Josephus’s statement given by Jerome, Agapius and Michael reflect alternative textual traditions of Josephus which did not contain” the bold Christian confessions that appear in the standard Greek version (Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, p. 231). They contain variations that exhibit a degree of the fluidity that Mason emphasizes (Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, pp. 230–231). But these versions are not so different that they are unrecognizable as different versions of the Testimonium Flavianum. They use several similar phrases and refer to the same events, presenting phrases and events in a closely similar order, with few exceptions. Thus, along with enough agreement among the standard Greek text and the non-Greek versions to reveal a noteworthy degree of stability, their differences clearly exhibit the work of other hands after Josephus. (It is by this stability that we may recognize many lengthy additions and disagreements with the manuscript texts of the Testimonium Flavianum that are found in a passage sometimes called the Testimonium Slavianum that was apparently inserted into the Old Russian translation, called the Slavonic version, of Josephus’s other major work, The Jewish War.)

In the process of finding the similarities of phrases and references in extant manuscripts, one can come to recognize that the standard Greek form of the Testimonium Flavianum is simply one textual tradition among several. On balance, the Greek version is not necessarily supreme over all other textual traditions (Mason, Josephus and the New Testament, pp. 234–236). Despite a degree of stability in the text, the fluidity that is evident in various textual traditions is plain evidence that what Josephus wrote was later altered. When viewed from the standpoint of the Latin, Arabic and Syriac versions, the Greek text looks deliberately altered to make Josephus seem to claim that Jesus was the Messiah, possibly by omitting words that indicated that people called him Christos or thought, said, reported or believed that he was. Also, although of course the evidence is the crucial factor, alternative 3 also happens to have the support of the overwhelming majority of scholars, far more than any other view.

31. Almost all of the following points are listed and elaborated in Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, pp. 99–102.

32. Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 99.

33. “The non-Christian testimonies to Jesus … show that contemporaries in the first and second century saw no reason to doubt Jesus’ existence” (Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, p. 63).

34. Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 15. His footnote attached to this sentence states, with reference to Justin Martyr:

The only possible attempt at this argument known to me is in Justin’s Dialogue with Trypho, written in the middle of the second century. At the end of chapter 8, Trypho, Justin’s Jewish interlocutor, states, “But [the] Christ—if indeed he has been born and exists anywhere—is unknown, and does not even know himself, and has no power until Elijah comes to anoint him and make him known to all. Accepting a groundless report, you have invented a Christ for yourselves, and for his sake you are unknowingly perishing.” This may be a faint statement of a nonexistence hypothesis, but it is not developed or even mentioned again in the rest of the Dialogue, in which Trypho assumes the existence of Jesus (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 15, note 35).

Even in this statement, in which Trypho tries to imply that an existing report of Jesus as the Christ is erroneous, his reason is not necessarily that Jesus did not exist. Rather, he might well have wanted to plant the doubt that—although Jesus existed, as Trypho consistently assumes throughout the rest of the dialogue— the “report” that Jesus was the Christ was “groundless,” and that later on, someone else might arise who would prove to be the true Christ. Trypho was attempting to raise hypothetical doubt without here stating any actual grounds for doubt. These suggestions, more likely taunts, from Trypho, which he immediately abandons, cannot be regarded as an argument, let alone a serious argument. They are simply an unsupported doubt, apparently regarding Jesus’ being the Messiah.

35. Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, pp. 133–134.

36. The chief difficulty in working with rabbinic writings that might be about Jesus is that

it is not always clear if Jesus (variously called Yeshua or Yeshu, with or without the further designation ha-Noṣri [meaning “the Nazarene”]) is in fact the person to whom reference is being made, especially when certain epithets are employed (e.g. Balaam, Ben Pandira, Ben Stada, etc. … Another serious problem in making use of these traditions is that it is likely that none of it is independent of Christian sources (Craig A. Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” in Bruce Chilton and Craig A. Evans, eds., Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research, 2nd impression, New Testament Tools and Studies, vol. 6 (Boston: Brill, 1998, 1994), pp. 443–444).

Thus Van Voorst finds that “most passages alleged to speak about him in code do not in fact do so, or are so late as to have no value” (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 129).

From among the numerous rabbinic traditions, many of which seem puzzling in their potential references to Jesus, a fairly clear example is as follows:

And it is tradition: On the eve of the Passover they hanged Yeshu ha-Noṣri. And the herald went forth before him for forty days, “Yeshu ha-Noṣri is to be stoned, because he has practiced magic and enticed and led Israel astray. Anyone who knows anything in his favor, let him come and speak concerning him.” And they found nothing in his favor. And they hanged him on the eve of the Passover. Ulla says, “Would it be supposed that Yeshu ha-Noṣri was one for whom anything in his favor might be said? Was he not a deceiver? And the Merciful has said, ‘Thou shalt not spare, neither shalt thou conceal him’ [Deuteronomy 13:8]. But it was different with Yeshu ha-Noṣri, for he was near to the kingdom’” (Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 43a; compare Sanhedrin 67a).

The following paragraph summarizes Craig A. Evans’s comments on the above quotation from the Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 43a:

According to John 18:28 and 19:14, Jesus’ execution occurred during Passover. The phrase “near to the kingdom” might refer to the Christian tradition that Jesus was a descendant of King David (Matthew 1:1; Mark 10:47, 48), or it could refer to Jesus’ proclamation that the kingdom of God was at hand (Mark 1:15). Deuteronomy 13:1–11 prescribes death by stoning for leading other Israelites astray to serve other gods, giving a sign or wonder, and Deuteronomy 21:21–22 requires that “when a man has committed a sin worthy of death, and he is put to death, you shall hang him on a tree” (compare the Mishnah, Sanhedrin 6:4, “All who have been stoned must be hanged”). When Judea came under Roman rule, which instituted crucifixion as a legal punishment, apart from the question of whether it was just or unjust, Jews roughly equated it with hanging on a tree. (Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” p. 448)

The passage above simultaneously implies the rabbis’ view that Jesus really existed and encapsulates the rabbis’ uniformly negative view of his miracles as magic and his teachings as deceit (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 120).

37. Passing of Peregrinus, §11, as translated in Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” p. 462.

38. This paragraph is a separate quotation from Passing of Peregrinus, §11, again as translated in Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” p. 462.

39. On Celsus: in c. 176 C.E., Celsus, a Platonist philosopher in Alexandria, wrote The True Word (this title is also translated as The True Doctrine, or The True Discourse, or The True Account, etc.) to lodge his severe criticisms of Judaism and Christianity. Although that work has not survived, it is quoted and paraphrased in Origen’s reply in defense of Christianity, Against Celsus (c. 248 C.E.). Prominent among his many accusations to which Origen replies is as follows:

Next he makes the charge of the savior that it was by magic that he was able to do the miracles which he appeared to have done, and foreseeing that others also, having learned the same lessons and being haughty to act with the power of God, are about to do the same thing, such persons Jesus would drive away from his own society.

For he says, “He was brought up in secret and hired himself out as a workman in Egypt, and having tried his hand at certain magical powers he returned from there, and on account of those powers gave himself the title of God” (Origen, Against Celsus, 1.6, 38, as translated in Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” p. 460).

It is unknown whether Celsus became aware of information about Jesus, including reports of his miracles, from the Gospel tradition(s) or independently of them. Thus it cannot be said that Celsus adds any new historical material about Jesus, though it is clear that in accusing Jesus of using magic for personal gain, Celsus assumed his existence.

Charges that Jesus was a magician are common in ancient writings, and Christian replies have been published even very recently. Evans refers readers to “an assessment of the polemic that charges Jesus with sorcery”: Graham N. Stanton, “Jesus of Nazareth: A Magician and a False Prophet Who Deceived God’s People?” in Joel B. Green and Max Turner, eds., Jesus of Nazareth: Lord and Christ: Essays on the Historical Jesus and New Testament Christology, I. Howard Marshall Festschrift (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994), pp. 166–182 (Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” p. 460, note 45).

40. On Pliny the Younger: A friend of Tacitus, and like him the governor of a Roman province (in 110 C.E.), Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (c. 61–113 C.E.), known as Pliny, seems to have been excessively dependent on the Emperor Trajan for directions on how to govern. In his lengthy correspondence with Trajan, titled Epistles, X.96, along with his inquiries about how to treat people accused of being Christians, Pliny wrote:

They [the Christians] assured me that the sum total of their error consisted in the fact that that they regularly assembled on a certain day before daybreak. They recited a hymn antiphonally to Christus as to a god and bound themselves with an oath not to commit any crime, but to abstain from theft, robbery, adultery, breach of faith, and embezzlement of property entrusted to them. After this, it was their custom to separate, and then to come together again to partake of a meal, but an ordinary and innocent one (Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” p. 459)

The things that Pliny wrote about Christians can be found in or deduced from the New Testament. He reveals nothing new about Jesus himself, nor can his letters be considered evidence for Jesus’ existence, only for Christian belief in his existence. One may note what seems to have been early second century Christian belief in Jesus as deity, as well as the sizable population of Christians worshiping him in Pliny’s province, Bithynia, in Asia Minor, despite Roman prohibition and punishments.

41. On Suetonius: In c. 120 C.E., the Roman writer, lawyer and historian Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (c. 70–140 C.E.), a friend of Pliny, wrote the following in his history, On the Lives of the Caesars, speaking of an event in 49 C.E.: “He [Claudius] expelled the Jews from Rome, because they were always making disturbances because of the instigator Chrestus” (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 30).

In the first place, the term “the Jews” could refer to Christians, whom Romans viewed as members of a Jewish sect. So the “disturbances” could be understood as riots among Jews, among Christians viewed as Jews, or, most likely, between those whom we would call Jews and Christians.

The use of the name “Chrestus” creates more ambiguity in this passage than the term “Chrestians” did in the passage in Tacitus treated above. Tacitus implicitly corrected the crowd. Here, with Suetonius speaking of events in 49 C.E., we have two options to choose from. The first option is that it’s a spelling of a mispronunciation of Christus, which Romans thought was Jesus’ name. If so, then Suetonius misunderstood Christus, whom he called “Chrestus,” to be an instigator. Suetonius’s key appositive phrase, “impulsore Chresto,” is much more accurately translated “the instigator Chrestus” (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 31) than the usual “at the instigation of Chrestus” (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 29). Another logical result would be that the uproarious disputes in 49 C.E. were actually disturbances sparked by disagreement about who Jesus was and/or what he said and did. Considering the two sides, namely, the rabbinic view that he was a magician and deceitful teacher, versus early Christians whose worship was directed to him “as to a god” (as described from the Roman perspective of Pliny the Younger), one can see how synagogues could become deeply divided.

The second option is that it refers to an otherwise unknown “instigator” of disturbances who bore the common name of slaves and freedmen, Chrestus. Actually, among hundreds of Jewish names in the catacombs of Rome, there is not one instance of Chrestus being the name of a Jew (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 33). For this and other reasons, it seems more likely that Suetonius, who often uncritically repeated errors in his sources, was referring to Christus, that is, Jesus, but misunderstood him to be an agitator who lived in Rome in 49 C.E. (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, pp. 29–39).

42. On Mara bar Serapion: In the last quarter of the first century C.E., a prisoner of war following the Roman conquest of Samosata (see under Lucian), Mara bar Serapion wrote a letter to his son, Serapion. In Stoic fashion, he wanted his son to seek wisdom in order to handle life’s misfortunes with virtue and composure.

For what advantage did the Athenians gain by the murder of Socrates, the recompense of which they received in famine and pestilence? Or the people of Samos by the burning of Pythagoras, because in one hour their country was entirely covered in sand? Or the Jews by the death of their wise king, because from that same time their kingdom was taken away? God justly avenged these three wise men: the Athenians died of hunger; the Samians were overwhelmed by the sea; the Jews, ruined and driven from their land, live in complete dispersion. But Socrates did not die for good; he lived on in the teaching of Plato. Pythagoras did not die for good; he lived on in the statue of Hera. Nor did the wise king die for good; he lived on in the teaching which he had given (Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” pp. 455–456)

All we know of the author comes from this letter. Mara does not seem to have been a Christian, because he does not refer to a resurrection of Jesus and because his terminology, such as “wise king,” is not the usual Christian way of referring to Jesus. It is entirely possible that Mara received some knowledge of Jesus from Christians but did not name him for fear of displeasing his own Roman captors. His nameless reference makes the identification of “the wise king” as Jesus, though reasonable, still somewhat uncertain.

43. Doubtful sources contain “second- and third-hand traditions that reflect for the most part vague acquaintance with the Gospel story and controversies with Christians. These sources offer nothing independent” (Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” p. 443). Doubtful sources include the following:

Many rabbinic sources, including the Sepher Toledot Yeshu, “The Book of the Generations of Jesus” (meaning his ancestry or history; compare Matthew 1:1). It might be generally datable to as early as the eighth century C.E. but “may well contain a few oral traditions that go back to the third century.” It is “nothing more than a late collection of traditions, from Christian as well as from Jewish sources … full of fictions assembled for the primary purpose of anti-Christian polemic and propaganda,” and has no historical value regarding the question of Jesus’ existence (Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” p. 450).

The Slavonic (or Old Russian) Version of Josephus’s Jewish War “contains numerous passages … [which] tell of Jesus’ amazing deeds, of the jealousy of the Jewish leaders, of bribing Pilate,” etc. (Evans, “Jesus in Non-Christian Sources,” p. 451). These additions have no demonstrated historical value. The Yosippon (or Josippon) is a medieval source which appears in many versions, often with many additions. Its core is a Hebrew version of portions of Josephus’s writings that offers nothing from before the fourth century C.E. The Dead Sea Scrolls contain no contemporary references to Jesus or his followers. Islamic traditions either depend on the New Testament or are not clearly traceable to the early centuries C.E.

44. Regarding archaeological discoveries, along with many other scholars, I do not find that the group of ossuaries (bone boxes) discovered in the East Talpiot district of Jerusalem can be used as a basis for any conclusions about Jesus of Nazareth or his family. See the variety of views presented in James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Tomb of Jesus and His Family? Exploring Ancient Jewish Tombs Near Jerusalem’s Walls (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2008), especially the essay by Rachel Hachlili, “What’s in a Name?” pp. 125–149. She concludes, “In light of all the above the East Talpiot tomb is a Jewish family tomb with no connection to the historical Jesus family; it is not the family tomb of Jesus and most of the presented facts for the identification are speculation and guesswork” (p. 143).

45. See Nili S. Fox, In the Service of the King: Officialdom in Ancient Israel and Judah, Monographs of the Hebrew Union College (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 2000), pp. 23–32; Christopher A. Rollston, “Non-Provenanced Epigraphs I: Pillaged Antiquities, Northwest Semitic Forgeries, and Protocols for Laboratory Tests,” Maarav 10 (2003), pp. 135–193, and his “Non-Provenanced Epigraphs II: The Status of Non-Provenanced Epigraphs within the Broader Corpus of Northwest Semitic,” Maarav 11 (2004), pp. 57–79.

46. See Craig A. Evans, Jesus and the Ossuaries (Waco, TX: Baylor Univ. Press, Markham Press Fund, 2003), pp. 112–115. Regarding identification of the people named in the James ossuary inscription, even if it is authentic, the question as to whether it refers to Jesus of Nazareth has not been clearly settled. It is worth observing that its last phrase, “the brother of Jesus,” whose authenticity is disputed, is not the characteristic Christian way of referring to Jesus, which would be “the brother of the Lord,” but this observation hardly settles the question.

47. On G. A. Wells and Michael Martin, see Gary R. Habermas, The Historical Jesus: Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ (Joplin, MO: College Press, 1996), pp. 27–46. On others who deny Jesus’ existence, see Ehrman, Did Jesus Exist? , especially pp. 61–64, 177–264.

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  1. Lawrence says

    Reply to Bruce (48. above):
    Bruce, it’s a free country. You are entirely free to assert without evidence and in contradiction of the 4 Gospels that the 12 apostles included women. You are also free to opine that Jesus’ proper name was not Jesus at all but Immanuel, despite the clear evidence of the New Testament and even non-Christian sources, including Josephus, that give his name as Jesus.

    Nevertheless, I stand by my article. I would not have imagined that stating that the 12 apostles were all men and that Jesus was named Jesus should be at all controversial.

  2. Lawrence says

    Reply to Brian (50. above):
    You have provided a very interesting, well-informed chronology of Jesus’ life. I would only observe that 1) the matter of exactly what the star of Bethlehem was and precisely when it appeared can easily become a complicated subject to research, and, more importantly, 2) there are several ways to approach a chronology of Jesus’ life. Although these different approaches tend to produce slightly different results in terms of exact year numbers, the chronology of that unique life is stable, in that there are no large variations in the years assigned to various events.

    I recall discovering and reading Harold W. Hoehner’s book, _Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ_ (1977) as if it were the rarest of precious treasure. But now I recognize that other approaches may also be quite persuasive.

  3. Bruce says

    Lawrence, I never said women were among the 12 apostles. Since I must spell it out: in essence, I said; logic dictates that women would most certainly be interested in the truth, spiritual or otherwise, as they are today. Therefore, in addition to the 12 named historical apostles, what happened to the women who were as interested as the males? Are there no women interested in such things today and therefore why would it have been any different 2000 years ago. Surely Jesus would never exclude anyone by gender or by any other divisive superficiality.

    Also, please answer my query regarding just who Isaiah & Matthew were referring to as Immanuel , which translated means “God with us”.

    Matthew 1:23 – “Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel”


    Isaiah 7:14 – “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.”


    Also, in reference to the translation of the prophecies of a “virgin” giving birth, the Hebrew word “almah” does not mean virgin but ‘young woman’ or ‘maiden’ as the word for virgin is “b’tulah”. Therefore, this translation is tweaked and falsely interpreted. Certainly, a young woman may indeed be a virgin but the word used was “almah” and not “b’tulah”.

  4. Bruce says

    Lawrence, also regarding Jesus’s birth name and name change, only AFTER the crucifixion. From Philippians 2:8-9:
    “And being found in human form he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name.”


    And then from Hebrews 1:3-4 ” http://biblia.com/bible/esv/Heb1.3-4
    3. He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.”

    Both of these passages suggest his name was changed after the crucifixion.

  5. GENE says

    If there seems to be a conflict between the angel’s instructions to Mary (“you are to call his name Jesus”) and Isaiah’s prophecy (” she will certainly call his name Immanuel”) let it be remembered that Messiah was also to be called by yet other names (Luke 1:31; Isa 7:14) For example, Isaiah 9:6 said concerning this one: “HIS NAME will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.” yet none of these names were given to Mary’s firstborn as personal names, neither when he was a babe nor after he took up his ministry. Rather, they were all prophetic title-names by which Messiah would be identified. Jesus lived up to the meaning of these names in every respect, and that is the sense in which they were prophetically given, to show his qualities and the good offices he would perform toward all those accepting him as Messiah. So also with his title Immanuel. He measured up to and fulfilled its meaning. (Insight on The Scriptures Vol. 1, pg 1187)
    It might be also noted that the prophecy in Isaiah chapter 7 and 8 appears to have had an initial fulfillment( a type) in the days of King Ahaz of the nation of Judah in view of an impending attack from Israel and Syria. Any such attack would fail, “it will not stand, For God is with us (Immanuel)!” (Isa. 8:5-10). Matthew under inspiration from Jehovah made note of the anti-type or greater fulfillment in applying it to Jesus. By sending His Son to earth, God showed he had turned his attention to His people, Those accepting Messiah would benefit greatly by his coming.
    A final point regarding names, The Messiah was also called by the name “Shiloh” at Genesis 49:10 in a prophetic forecast that Messiah would be from the tribe of Judah.

  6. Bruce says

    Gene R. – While “Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace,” etc. are clearly descriptive titles and not given names, Emmanuel is clearly a name and not a descriptive title, despite the fact that all names have meanings.

  7. Lawrence says

    Reply to Gene R. (4. above):
    Many thanks, Gene, for your well-informed, well-balanced reply! I am particularly pleased that you mention both Isaiah 7 & 8’s near reference and also the more distant application of Isaiah 7:14 mentioned in Matthew 1:23. Thanks again!

  8. Brian says


    Thanks again for the discussion. I agree with both of your points. Discussion of when Jesus was born is especially speculative and likely always will be, though a year between 8 and 4 BCE seems relatively secure. The year of his death is less speculative, though still not certain.

    Now that you have presented the evidence of his existence in BAR, maybe you can write an article about the evidence for when he was born and died? Just a thought. :-)

  9. Lawrence says

    Reply to Brian (7. above):
    Regarding the birth date of Jesus, like many who have studied the New Testament, I place great confidence in the skill of Herod the Great as a murderer. In order to keep his power, he killed a sizable number of potential, real and imagined political opponents.
    According to Matthew chapter 2, when the magi arrived in Jerusalem seeking “the one who has been born king of the Jews,” Herod (who thought he himself was king of the Jews) immediately found out where and when he might kill Jesus. First he consulted the chief priests and scribes, and found out where Messiah was predicted to be born: Bethlehem. Then he “called the Magi secretly and found out from them the exact time the star has appeared.” On the assumption that the Messiah was born at Bethlehem when the star first appeared, he ordered the murder of all boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity who were aged two years and younger.
    Herod the Great died in 4 B.C.E. Two years earlier would have been 6 B.C.E. Being persuaded—for whatever reasons—that Herod the Great died not long after giving the order to murder these innocent children, many New Testament scholars think that Jesus was born between 6 and 4 B.C.E.
    Brian, despite your nice invitation, this is probably the closest I will come to writing the article you suggest.

  10. Bruce says

    Since this did not get posted, I will repost this:

    Lawrence, also regarding Jesus’s birth name and name change, only AFTER the crucifixion. From Philippians 2:8-9:
    “And being found in human form he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name.”


    And then from Hebrews 1:3-4 ” http://biblia.com/bible/esv/Heb1.3-4
    3. He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.”

    Both of these passages suggest his name was changed after the crucifixion.

  11. Lawrence says

    Reply to Bruce (4., and 10. above and, on the previous page, 38. The previous page is linked above through the words “Previous 1″ on the line before “Continuing the Discussion” that introduce the web pages listed on this page):
    Actually, Bruce, in 10 above, you have simply repeated your words in 4 above, which was posted.
    Since you have argued on the basis of Matthew 1:23 in your post 38 on the previous page, let us quote the whole episode in Matthew 1:18-25. (Since have used the King James version, I will follow your preference).

    “[18] Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost.
    [19] Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a public example, was minded to put her away privily.
    [20] But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.
    [21] And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus: for he shall save his people from their sins.
    [22] Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,
    [23] Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.
    [24] Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife:
    [25] And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name Jesus.” (Matthew 1:18-25)

    Note that in verse 21, God’s message through the angel is a _command_ to Joseph to name the child _Jesus_. Also, verse 25 states that Joseph did in fact call his name Jesus. In between these two verses is a quotation from Isaiah chapter 7.

    In post 38 on the previous page, you presented the following statements about the passages in Matthew chapter 1 and Isaiah chapter 7:

    ” I find it ridiculous that Jesus was his given name at birth.
    Matthew 1:23 – “Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son,
    and they shall call his name Immanuel”
    Isaiah 7:14 – “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
    I find it much more likely that his birth name was Immanuel . . . .”

    Your statements are nothing more than a denial of two very plain statements found in Matthew’s Gospel that come before and after the passage from Isaiah. Faced with a choice between your denial and Matthew’s account, I find your view to be in error and Matthew’s account to be reliable.
    * * *
    Building on the statement found in Matthew, “thou shalt call his name Jesus: for he shall save his people from their sins, ” it is safe to say that Matthew believed that God knew in advance that Jesus would be the savior of his people, and that is the reason for naming him Jesus. The verses you quote in Philippians chapter 2 present the _logical_ reason that God knew all along, not the _chronological_ order, as if God were waiting to see if Jesus would accomplish his mission:

    “And being found in human form he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name.” (Philippians 2:8, 9)

    Further, the passage in Hebrews chapter 1 that you quote is intended to show how much greater Jesus’ name (and character) is than that name (and character) of any angels:

    ” . . . having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.” (Hebrews 1:4)

    Jesus inherited his name not after his death, but upon his birth, as indicated in Matthew’s Gospel.

  12. Lawrence says

    Reply to Erik (on the previous page, 18. The previous page is linked above through the words “Previous 1″ on the line before “Continuing the Discussion” that introduce the web pages listed on this page):
    To answer your question, “Christos means anointed – At that time were kings, high priests and judges all anointed”:
    1) The period of the judges ended a few decades before 1000 B.C.E. Judges were not anointed, but rather, God is said to have “raised up” various judges as military leaders from time to time, when the Hebrew people were attacked by enemies.

    2) According to 1 Samuel 10:1, the last of the judges, Samuel, anointed Saul to be the first king over the Hebrew people. In Samuel chapter 16, Samuel anointed David to become king at a later time, and other Hebrew kings were also anointed, such as Solomon, according to 1 Kings 1:34. With the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 586 B.C.E., descendants of the Hebrew kings were no longer anointed with oil to become future kings, because the Hebrew people were ruled by other nations.

    3) According to Exodus 28:41, the Hebrew high priest and other priests were to be anointed as part of their initiation ceremony. Since the priesthood continued during Jesus’ day, they were the only ones who were officially anointed with oil to begin their priestly ministry.

    Right after Jesus was baptized, according to Matthew 3:16-17, Mark 1:9-11, and Luke 3:21-22, the Holy Spirit descended from above and rested upon him. Since this occurred just before Jesus was tempted in the wilderness, after which he began his ministry, many Christian theologians consider this event to be analogous to anointing with oil, but vastly more powerful.

  13. Lawrence says

    Correction to my two posts 11. and 12. on this page:
    The previous page is linked not above but _below_, through the words “Previous 1″ on the line before “Continuing the Discussion” that introduce the web pages listed on this page:

  14. Lawrence says

    Reply to Erik (on the previous page, post 18.
    In response to your comments, “I couldn’t find anything about the the chronology re. the term ‘christian’ ” and, “The first time the term Christian was mentioned was in Antioch””

    It is impossible to date the beginning of the use of the term Christian. It might have been used originally against believers in Jesus, as a term of derision, but there is no way to assign an exact year to it, and the New Testament gives us only a general idea of when it was first used: during the first century: perhaps around the time when Barnabas brought Saul/Paul the apostle to Antioch (Acts 11:25-26). By the time Paul had been put on trial before Festus (Acts chapter 25) and appeared before King Agrippa (Acts 26), even King Agrippa used the term “Christian” as a way of referring to a follower of Jesus (Acts 26:28).

  15. Lawrence says

    Reply to Erik (on the previous page, post 18. The previous page is linked below, through the words “Previous 1″ on the line before “Continuing the Discussion” that introduce the web pages listed on this page.):

    In response to your comment, “Josephus mentions , , , Jesus, son of Damneus who was anointed [= Chrestos], as high priest.”

    This high priest was anointed with oit at the beginning of his high priestly ministry. The Greek term is not the Roman name of slaves and freedmen,Chrestos, but rather christos, meaning simply “anointed,” just as previous high priests and later ones were anointed with oil, as required by the law of Moses.

    In response to your comments:
    “I have read, that perhaps the most important aspect re. the term “christian” is, that Josephus normally always explains his Roman readers the meanings when he introduces unfamiliar terms, also when he repeats.
    But here there is no explanations of what a “chrestos” are?”

    Again, as the article explains, the term is not the Roman name of slaves and freedmen, which is,Chrestos (meaning “good, kind, useful, helpful”) but rather the Greek term christos, meaning “anointed,” or if referring to the coming Jewish Messiah, Christos, “(the) anointed one.” The significance of Josephus not explaining the significance of the term in book 20 of his Jewish Antiquities is that since he does explain new terms to his Roman readers, the likely implication is that he already explained something of the significance of the term Christos earlier in Jewish Antiquities. This implication tends to strengthen the case for Josephus as the author of the longer reference to Jesus in book 18 of Jewish Antiquities.

  16. John says

    On the discussion on names.
    In Scripture name = character and not just a title.
    God is revealed in holy character, creative actions, and divine wisdom.
    God is not a spatial being with a title.
    Jesus revealed God. He was in character God with us.

  17. Bruce says

    Lawrence, Matthew 23, which says in no uncertain terms his name shall be Emmanuel, yet this verse is surrounded by his name being Jesus as well; how do you explain away such seeming apparent contradiction and confusing inconsistency?

    Also, how accurate to actual historical events do you think the New Testament could possibly be considering it was commissioned nearly 400 years after the events it was supposed to document for all time? Very few people could read or write back then and the chances for falsifications, alterations, distortions were extremely high. Even in this day and age, such is the case depending on where one gets their news and the bias of such a source.

    For ex., due to a fire, the first Torah or Old Testament was destroyed. Then 400 years later, a 2nd Torah was cobbled together by 12 alleged Prophets in 40 days, which was composed of 240 books or stories that were based on ancient oral acceptances, assertions, traditions and deliberate self-serving distortions, from which arose, the Five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch of Judaism. For ex., it is said that Moses wandered the desert for 40 years after escaping Egyptian slavery with his Jewish followers, however I have also read that it was more likely 40 weeks, which makes a lot more sense considering the geography of the area, of which Moses was surely knowledgeable considering his stint as an Egyptian military leader.

    My point is distortion of actualities was far more likely than a precise and accurate rendering of events thousands of years ago, made even more likely by the very few who could even read or write and then those were on the payroll of those in power who had it in their own special interest to present events and stories to their advantage, to increase & extend their own power and wealth.

  18. Lawrence says

    Reply to Bruce (17. above):
    I and others have already replied to your questions regarding the naming of Jesus. Regarding the data in the rest of your comment, I do not find factual material there. But you can spin a good yarn.

  19. Bruce says

    Lawrence, Not only were all my questions very unsatisfactorily answered in typical believer-fashion and other questions or issues simply ignored or brushed aside, but I find it clear as day that you are really not interested in the truth first, as a true scientist or archaeologist would be, but that your religious beliefs comes first and all else is only there to confirm these beliefs.

    You suspected I had an agenda here. That would be correct and my agenda would be the true truth above all else and not religious-belief first and truth second.

  20. Lawrence says

    Reply to Bruce (19. above):
    I stand by my article. It is based on the strongest ancient evidence and the best publications by modern scholars that I could find. The endnotes above which cite these numerous publications are almost as long as the article itself. You have not cited a single scholarly publication in support of your contentions.
    I am also grateful for the evidence, knowledge, insights, and references provided by readers in their helpful comments, especially the following:
    On the previous page (which is linked below, through the words “Previous 1″ on the line before “Continuing the Discussion” that introduce the linked web pages): Bob (comments 3, 9, and 11), Kurt (comment 31), and Gene R. (comments 33 and 34).
    Above on this page: Gene R. again (comment 5 above), Brian (comment 8 above), and John (comment 16 above).
    Thank you, one and all.
    My comments 39, 40, 44, and 45 on the previous page, as well as comment 11 above, were intended to provide helpful light on the subject in response to your comments. To descend to _ad_hominem_ argument by impugning the motives of any author, as your comment 19 does, cannot establish your case.
    My major offense seems to be stating that Jesus was named Jesus.
    And so, Bruce, let me wish you a Happy New Year!

  21. Cooper says

    How could these writings be confirmation of the existannce of Jesus if none are from the time of Christ , Tacitus most likely used the biblical story wether he heard it by word of mouth or read it ,as a source because there is no record of Pontias pilot executing a man named Jesus other then the bible . There is no reason to believe that any of these works used any source other then the story itself. Wether or not he existed ( I believe he did) is of little importance in the context of wether or not he is who the authors of the gospels claim him to be ( I do not believe them) . We don’t even know who the authors of the four gospels are and there is no artifacts , dwellings , tombs or works of carpentry that confirm that Jesus lived the life that they say he lived.
    If all that happend in his life the people he healed , saved , consoled and pissed off would have written about it when it happens , no one talked about him it seems . No one

  22. FELIX says


  23. Darrell says

    Excellent article.

    Cooper, I do believe you are being a “dog in a manger” with your comments. The article and footnotes, not to mention the authors replies in this comments section, provide compelling answers to your queries……many of them referenced even!

    There doesn’t seem to be any biblical connection to Tacitus’s remarks due to the rather obvious error he makes linking the name Chrestus with the Christians.

    There was also the mention that there are surprisingly few original writings in existence of anything from that time! I wonder if this very early first century period was a time when writing materials were in a period of change……possibly papyrus was in use more than vellum, whatever!

    It pays to read a little closer Cooper

  24. Lawrence says

    Reply to Darrell (23 above):
    Thank you for your kind remarks, gentle response, and good observations. .

  25. Billy says

    Dr. Richard Carrier has issued a substantive critical response to this piece by Mykytiuk. His blog posts are written in casual and often irreverent language, but don’t let that cloud the merits of his scholarly acumen and rigor. Carrier has a PhD in ancient history and has done extensive research on the question of Jesus’ historicity, so his opinion is highly relevant. He has also gone to the trouble of working out a sound methodology for analyzing these kinds of questions. Here is the link if anyone is interested in what he has to say: http://freethoughtblogs.com/carrier/archives/6862

  26. Lawrence says

    Reply to Billy (25 above):
    In the blog post you refer to, Dr. Carrier states that “Notably, Mykytiuk even concedes Tacitus’s source was Gospel-using Christians.” The article, however, merely observes that Tacitus likely encountered Christians, whom he questioned and judged. It does not at all state that he used Christians as a “source,” as Dr Carrier claims, let alone “Tacitus’s source.” Carrier’s use of the singular amounts to a claim that Tacitus used only one source, a claim for which no conclusive evidence currently exists.
    In fact, Tacitus so despised Christians that he would have instinctively distrusted practically anything they said.
    For instance, it is remarkable that Tacitus never refers to the man he calls Christus by his actual name, Jesus, which Christians would certainly have known and mentioned.
    As Dr Carrier himself would be acutely aware, because of his disagreements with many scholars, there is a world of difference between becoming aware of the statements, references, and claims of others and actually giving credence to them. I am aware of statements made by followers of other religions and scholars of “no religion,” but I certainly do not concede accuracy to the data they affirm unless I verify it using reliable sources that I trust.

    To make myself entirely clear—Dr. Carrier misreads the following paragraph in the article, which makes no such claim as he imagines:

    “Earlier in his career, when Tacitus was Proconsul of Asia,7 he likely supervised trials, questioned people accused of being Christians and judged and punished those whom he found guilty, as his friend Pliny the Younger had done when he too was a provincial governor. Thus Tacitus stood a very good chance of becoming aware of information that he characteristically would have wanted to verify before accepting it as true.8″

    The above paragraph is clarified by the attached footnote 8, quoted below, which Dr. Carrier seems not to have read. The second through fifth sentences: “I have read . . . . ” through “. . . his discernment as a historian” take away his claim regarding the article’s view of Tacitus’ sources.

    “8 Perhaps he compared it to Roman records, whether in general governmental archives or in records concerning various religions. I have read one analysis by an author who arbitrarily assumes that Tacitus got his information only from Christians—no other source. Then, on the sole basis of the author’s own assumption, the analysis completely dismisses Tacitus’s clear historical statement about “Christus.” This evaluation is based on opinion, not evidence. It also undervalues Tacitus’s very careful writing and his discernment as a historian. He likely had access to some archives through his status, either as Proconsul of Asia, as a senator—or, as is often overlooked, from his connections as a high-ranking priest of Roman religion. In 88 C.E., he became “a member of the Quindecimviri Sacris Faciundis [“The Board of Fifteen for Performing Sacrifices”], the priestly organization charged, among other things, with … supervising the practice of officially tolerated foreign cults in the city … [and facing] the growing necessity to distinguish illicit Christianity from licit Judaism” (Van Voorst, Jesus Outside, p. 52), or, given Jewish resistance to oppressive measures taken by Rome, at least to keep a close watch on developments within Judaism. Indeed, “a Roman archive … is particularly suggested by the note of the temporary suppression of the superstition, which indicates an official perspective” (Theissen and Merz, Historical Jesus, p. 83). Membership in this priestly regulatory group very likely gave Tacitus access to at least some of the accurate knowledge he possessed about Christus. With characteristic brevity, he reported the facts as he understood them, quickly dismissing the despised, executed Christus from the Annals (see Meier, Marginal Jew, vol. 1, p. 90).”

    It is a pity that Dr. Carrier, who presents himself on his blog as a “renowned author,” has not bothered to read fully and carefully what he criticizes (and attempts to vilify) so freely.

    One other observation about Dr. Carrier’s blog post is that he does not distinguish between scholarly publications—written for experts who have gone far beyond the basics and are familiar with the details of controversies discussed in books that are hundreds of pages long—and popular-level publications, such as BAR, which are written for the general public, and whose articles are of limited length. To go into the details of scholarly controversies in a popular-level article would be to lose or confuse one’s audience.
    Dr. Carrier must surely be aware of the difference, but he makes no attempt to be scrupulously fair by taking into account the difference in writing for two widely varying audiences. This intentional overlooking of a glaring difference gives him a pseudo-justification for underscoring a cardinal sin of the article: “Most notably, this article takes no notice of, nor responds in any way, to my book . . . .” that was published a year ago.
    In point of fact, while not attempting to denigrate or belittle his work in any way, I—and the specialists who are quoted in the article—simply find other works that deny the existence of Jesus to be more important.

    Lawrence Mykytiuk
    Ph.D., Hebrew and Semitic Studies, M.A., Library and Information Studies, M.T.S. Theological Studies, Associate Professor of Library and Information Studies, Purdue University
    Courtesy appointment as Associate Professor of History, Purdue University

  27. Billy says

    Lawrence… in the interest of hashing out these differences would you submit the above criticism to Carrier for a reply on his blog post? I make no pretenses to expertise in these matters, yet I would love to see how he would respond to your points. Thanks

  28. Lawrence says

    Reply to Billy (27 above):
    I just posted a brief comment on Dr. Carrier’s blog, with a link to this page. I, too, will be interested to see how he responds.

  29. Lawrence says

    Reply to Billy (comment 27 above):
    Richard Carrier attempts to use Michael Grant’s book, Greek and Roman Historians: Information and Misinformation, to invalidate Tacitus’ reference to Christus. Although Grant makes the point that Greek and Roman historians, including Tacitus, are sometimes unreliable, this general point cannot be used to simply throw away everything they wrote, as Grant points out.
    Further, Grant’s general observation does not specifically nullify what Tacitus said about Jesus, about whom he possessed particular information that coincides with Josephus and the Gospels.

  30. Billy says

    I see. Thanks Dr. Mykytiuk. I believe Dr. Carrier has his blog in moderation since he is on a speaking trip. I assume he will address it there in the comments section at some point. I’ll be on the lookout. This is such a fascinating issue. Cheers.

  31. Sylvia says

    Jesus Christ is alive as I have heard His voice, there is no other voice like it It was during the time when Pope John Paul instituted the ecumenical movement and my church fell in with it, I was distressed about this as it seemed that the pope was trying to gather all the people under his wing. That night I had a dream Where the Lord appeared and spoke these Words “Truly, truly, I say unto thee, one of you shal betray me” I asked “is it I Lord” and the answer came “The hand that feeds my bread” I woke up in the morning still very much in dazed manner, and I asked another question “Does the church believe it is the saviour of the world?” and the answer came again.”So Eve believed and ate the apple” We are not to put our trust in churches but in the Living God, creator of heaven and earth whom send Christ to reconcile us to Him and make Him known to us. God bless

  32. James says

    @1 David: You say “liberal” as if it were a bad thing! The Jesus Seminar is in fact Bible scholars; check out their credentials. How silly, to say, because you don’t care for their thoughtfully developed conclusions, that they are not what they so obviously are.

  33. Lawrence says

    Reply to James (comment 32 above):
    Thank you for commenting, Could you please clarify who is the David you are responding to and where his remarks about the Jesus Seminar appear?

  34. Lawrence says

    Reply to Billy (30 above):
    Unfortunately for the progress of scholarly dialogue, today Dr. Carrier has “moderated” my brief comment on his blog by deleting it.

  35. Lawrence says

    Reply to Billy (30 above) and to correct my post 34 above:

    I apologize to Dr. Richard Carrier for my error in post 34 above when I mistakenly said he had deleted my comment of March 8. I simply could not see it and thought it was gone forever. On about April 19, I learned that, following his latest trip(s), Richard Carrier has a huge backlog of comments to review and reply to,

    I certainly understand what it is to go through many comments coming from different directions and do one’s best to provide a good reply to each one, so I am actually grateful for Richard’s current efforts.

    Today, April 26, I learned from his blog that, if I understand correctly, on April 9 he did not delete my March 8 comment on his blog. Rather, he reports that he is diligently working through the comments he has received. I am content to wait my turn. As of April 9, I was unaware that he had received so many comments on his blog that he needed to set new rules and “dig out” of the backlog of comments. I did not mean to give any impression that I expect to receive preferential treatment.

  36. regina says

    Jesus exists! I saw him in the flesh in 2007. I love you Jesus

  37. Luke says

    you really think the bible is evidence of anything? I’d like to know one non biblical source written anytime whatsoever during the life of Jesus. Please give me one writing by Jesus, or anyone at all from the time he lived. Give me one single source from anyone at all that wrote about him during his life. Better yet give me one example of something written by anyone who was even alive when Jesus Lived.

  38. Lawrence says

    Reply to Luke (37 above):
    Your comment involves hard-driving rhetoric: “I’d like to know one . . . source . . .. Please tell me one writing . . . . Give me one single source from anyone at all . . . . Better yet give me one example of something written by anyone . . . .” These are simply rhetorical questions, which create the impression that you assume that in every single case, no such sources exist. Rhetorical questions do not expect an answer. They do not express any interest in listening. They only attempt to convey an implicit opinion.

    As I understand this barrage, it amounts to: 1) an implicit claim that there is no such evidence, coupled with 2) a demand that the person you are talking to must surrender, or you will heap scorn on him or her.

    This kind of comment certainly seems to be long on confrontation and short on homework.

    I hope that the impression I have received is mistaken. I would love to carry on an honest discussion. If you are willing to drop the bluster and indignant facade and actually give a reasonably open, somewhat unbiased hearing to the evidence, please let me know.

    P.S. It is ironic that you give your name as Luke, whose writings provide what amounts to the historical backbone of much of the New Testament. The first few verses of his Gospel include his statement, “. . . I myself have carefully investigated everything from the beginning . . . . to write an orderly account for you . . . , so that you may know the certainty of the things you have been taught.”

  39. Lawrence says

    A second reply to Luke (37 above):
    Oh yes indeed, Luke, I think the Bible is evidence of many things, because the Bible itself consists of ancient books. The Dead Sea Scrolls, copied between 225 B.C.E. and 68 C.E., include every book of the Hebrew Bible except Esther. For instance, they bring us back more than 2/3 of the chronological distance back to David, and about 3/4 of the way back to Jeremiah.

    Before the Dead Sea Scrolls began to be discovered in 1947 (scroll discoveries continued for two decades), the oldest known copies of the complete Hebrew Bible were from the tenth century C.E. (that is, the 900s). Suddenly, the Dead Sea Scrolls provided a great leap back to copies of the Bible that were about 1,000 years earlier. And when the two were compared, along with interesting differences, they showed that in general, the text had been copied with remarkable faithfulness. The same depth of history, the same great promises, and the same inspiring vision of future healing and joy were found in texts from both time periods.

    And the Hebrew Bible is certainly not lacking in external verification, as archaeology has shown. See, for example, two books by Mordechai Cogan, _The Raging Torrent: Historical Inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia Relating to Ancient Israel_ (Carta, 2008) and _Bound for Exile: Israelites and Judeans under Imperial Yoke: Documents from Assyria and Babylonia_ (Carta: 2013).

  40. Lawrence says

    A third reply to Luke (37 above) and to interested readers:
    Luke’s next three questions all carefully—and artificially—limit the evidence to what was written _during_ Jesus’ earthly lifetime:
    “written anytime whatsoever during the life of Jesus,”
    “one writing by Jesus, or anyone at all from the time he lived,” and
    “anyone at all that wrote about him during his life.”
    Luke seems to want very much to avoid all written evidence that appeared _after_ the crucifixion. Of course, the mere fact that something was written after a person’s death does not at all, by itself, invalidate its content. Moreover, the best histories are often written long after the event, and the best biographies are often written long after the person died. For example, even with time-travel, could James M. McPherson have written his great book, _Battle Cry of Freedom: the Civil War Era_ (1988), before General Robert E. Lee of the Confederate States of America surrendered at Appomattox courthouse in 1865? Impossible. It takes time and sustained effort to gather evidence, analyze it, and develop a good historical perspective. The same could be said for many excellent biographies of presidents and of first ladies.

    The cutoff point that Luke wants to impose is not neutral. It represents an attempt to eliminate consideration of all surviving Christian, Jewish, and pagan evidence for the existence of Jesus. Of course, once one shuts one’s eyes to all the evidence, it is easy to deny any historically supported fact.

  41. Lawrence says

    A fourth reply (if I may) to Luke (37 above) and to interested readers:
    Luke’s last question is less guarded that the previous three: “Better yet give me one example of something written by anyone who was even alive when Jesus Lived.”

    The author of the letter of James was very much alive during Jesus’ lifetime on earth. Commentaries on this letter sometimes observe that it has several of the same wise insights also found in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew chapters 5 through 7). John R. W. Stott observed that the James who wrote the letter might well have been physically present when Jesus first preached that sermon.

    Matthew, also called Levi, who earlier collected taxes for the Roman rulers, was alive during Jesus’ lifetime, eventually became a follower of Jesus, and wrote one of only four first-century Gospels, which are the ones in the New Testament.

    Simon, the big fisherman whom Jesus re-named Peter, became his follower. His junior companion Mark heard Peter’s preaching and apparently rendered it, some would say as recognizably Peter’s message, in the Gospel of Mark.

    John, the beloved disciple, is arguably the author of the Gospel like no other. And as mentioned in the P.S. of comment 38, the first-century Luke, who apparently did not know Jesus in person, conducted painstaking historical research, very likely including interviews, for example, of Mary the mother of Jesus.

    Because Jesus won the hearts of the Gospel writers, today some amateurs, not realizing that all sources carry bias, completely dismiss them as “biased sources,” as if bias always made it impossible to tease out facts. At the same time, however, regardless of how one might feel about Jesus—teacher and healer versus deceiver and magician—they all ended up as his followers. Their discipleship is an indication that they came into contact with a strong personality who elicited their voluntary loyalty. This fact in turn points with considerable force to his existence.

  42. Aldemir says

    So, In summary sir , Which your opinion about Jesus, do you believes that Jesus lived and lives too, ? I apologize my poor english, i`m brazilian man.
    A Big hug

  43. Lawrence says

    Reply to Aldemir from Brazil (comment 42 above):
    In very bad Portuguese from Google Translator (forgive me!):
    Sim, de fato, Aldemir Eu acredito que Jesus viveu e agora vive novamente! Quando ele foi crucificado, Jesus deu a sua vida como o sacrifício perfeito para todos os nossos pecados, sofrendo morte em nosso lugar. Depois de ser enterrado, ele fisicamente ressuscitou dentre os mortos. O fato de que Deus o ressuscitou dentre os mortos mostrou claramente que Deus aprovava tudo o que ele fez e disse. Na sua ascensão, ele foi levado para o céu, onde agora está sentado à direita de Deus Pai, orando por nós! Para este dom de misericórdia imerecida Estou impressionado e eternamente grato.
    Mas uma vez que nem todo mundo acredita, como você e eu, quando se trata de mostrar que Jesus era um homem na história, temos de confiar em apenas uma evidência histórica antiga. Devemos tratar a questão da existência de Jesus o mais objetivamente possível, na qualidade de críticos do que poderíamos dizer antes de dizer qualquer coisa. Nossas demonstrações de fé em Jesus são subjetivos e são feitas no presente, para que eles não podem contar como evidência da existência de Jesus quando ele viveu na terra.
    Grandes Abraços volta para você. .
    Lawrence Mykytiuk

    In English:
    Yes indeed, Aldemir I believe that Jesus lived and now lives again! When he was crucified, Jesus gave up his life as the perfect sacrifice for all our sins, suffering death in our place. After being buried, he physically rose from the dead. The fact that God raised him from the dead clearly showed that God approved of everything he did and said. At his ascension, he was taken up into heaven, where he now sits at the right hand of God the Father, praying for us! For this gift of undeserved mercy I am amazed and forever grateful.
    But since not everyone believes as you and I do, when it comes to showing that Jesus was a man in history, we must rely on ancient historical evidence only. We must treat the question of Jesus’ existence as objectively as possible, acting as critics of what we might say before we say anything. Our statements of faith in Jesus are subjective and are made in the present, so they cannot count as evidence of existence of Jesus when he lived on earth.
    Big Hugs back to you. .
    Lawrence Mykytiuk

  44. Rene says

    Thank you. This article is very timely. I am on the road to Non believing in God anymore, but it is articles like this one that keeps me away from crossing that bridge.

  45. Lawrence says

    Reply to Rene (44 above):
    Thank you, Rene, for your kind message. It’s fine to doubt your doubts, but only if you also do a good job of finding, understanding, and evaluating the most important evidence—otherwise, mere scepticism amounts to needlessly depriving oneself of the benefit of good answers.

    Good guides, perhaps librarians or fair-minded scholars, can help in locating evidence. Without such a guide, it can take quite a while to find out what that most important evidence is. But even then, to experience long-term hunger for the evidence and for solid conclusions can ultimately be good for the mind and spirit.

    Some years ago I was intensely doubting my doubts and searching a bit, when by apparently dumb luck I stumbled on some evidence that I found to be very convincing: Psalm 22, which was definitely written in Hebrew and translated into Greek well before Jesus lived, when compared with Matthew chapter 27, seemed to me (and still seems, after considerable study) to present not an airtight case, but a very persuasive one. I recognize that not everyone will agree, and that is simply the way it is. In the last analysis, you choose what to believe or reject, hopefully in a reasonable, fair process of investigation.

    The evidence for the real existence of Jesus who was called Messiah/Christ is well presented in several scholarly books, most conveniently in those cited in the article above.

    My sincere best wishes to you, Rene.

    Lawrence Mykytiuk

  46. not says

    I stopped reading when the first answer quoted a sentence out of the bible… some people are looking for REAL answers. Physical evidence. If all every Christian can do is to provide an answer out of the bible. Then there is no REAL answer to me. An answer outside of the bible would have a more interest to me.

  47. Lawrence says

    Reply to 46, Ms. or Mr. not:
    This is a strange reply to an article that explains documentation of Jesus’ existence outside of the Bible.

  48. david says

    I believe there are a multitude of reasons to doubt Jesus Christ …. However if you have ever had a personal relationship with Him and watched Him change your DNA from the inside out then you cannot doubt …. Jesus changed the DNA of all the dinosaurs on Earth so they crawl upon their bellies Just as He said they would in Geneses ….. He can and does change the DNA of all those who seek Him into new Creations in Christ ! You read it but then you can not believe the Truth in what you read !! HOHOHO ! MERRY CHRISTMAS !

  49. Dan says

    This is a great article and is easy to follow. I’ve tried reading other writings on the subject and they are just too heady. I appreciate that you left out pieces of evidence that, although would support your point, you could not be certain were authentic. Thank you for your work on this subject.

  50. sergey says

    If you can read Russian – check out this book – “Jesus Christ in the Documents of History” (Iisus Hristos v dokumentah istorii). There collected vast corpus of information about Jesus in different sources of the Ancient world (including Jewish sources), but author of this book comes to the conclusion that the main and nearly the only source of this information were early Christians http://www.lib.ru/HRISTIAN/DEREWENSKIJ/derewenskij.pdf

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