How December 25 Became Christmas

This Bible History Daily feature was originally published in December 2012. It has been updated.—Ed.


 

A blanket of snow covers the little town of Bethlehem, in Pieter Bruegel’s oil painting from 1566. Although Jesus’ birth is celebrated every year on December 25, Luke and the other gospel writers offer no hint about the specific time of year he was born. Scala/Art Resource, NY

On December 25, Christians around the world will gather to celebrate Jesus’ birth. Joyful carols, special liturgies, brightly wrapped gifts, festive foods—these all characterize the feast today, at least in the northern hemisphere. But just how did the Christmas festival originate? How did December 25 come to be associated with Jesus’ birthday?

The Bible offers few clues: Celebrations of Jesus’ Nativity are not mentioned in the Gospels or Acts; the date is not given, not even the time of year. The biblical reference to shepherds tending their flocks at night when they hear the news of Jesus’ birth (Luke 2:8) might suggest the spring lambing season; in the cold month of December, on the other hand, sheep might well have been corralled. Yet most scholars would urge caution about extracting such a precise but incidental detail from a narrative whose focus is theological rather than calendrical.

The extrabiblical evidence from the first and second century is equally spare: There is no mention of birth celebrations in the writings of early Christian writers such as Irenaeus (c. 130–200) or Tertullian (c. 160–225). Origen of Alexandria (c. 165–264) goes so far as to mock Roman celebrations of birth anniversaries, dismissing them as “pagan” practices—a strong indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time.1 As far as we can tell, Christmas was not celebrated at all at this point.

This stands in sharp contrast to the very early traditions surrounding Jesus’ last days. Each of the Four Gospels provides detailed information about the time of Jesus’ death. According to John, Jesus is crucified just as the Passover lambs are being sacrificed. This would have occurred on the 14th of the Hebrew month of Nisan, just before the Jewish holiday began at sundown (considered the beginning of the 15th day because in the Hebrew calendar, days begin at sundown). In Matthew, Mark and Luke, however, the Last Supper is held after sundown, on the beginning of the 15th. Jesus is crucified the next morning—still, the 15th.a

Interested in learning about the birth of Jesus? Learn more about the history of Christmas and the date of Jesus’ birth in the free eBook The First Christmas: The Story of Jesus’ Birth in History and Tradition.

Easter, a much earlier development than Christmas, was simply the gradual Christian reinterpretation of Passover in terms of Jesus’ Passion. Its observance could even be implied in the New Testament (1 Corinthians 5:7–8: “Our paschal lamb, Christ, has been sacrificed. Therefore let us celebrate the festival…”); it was certainly a distinctively Christian feast by the mid-second century C.E., when the apocryphal text known as the Epistle to the Apostles has Jesus instruct his disciples to “make commemoration of [his] death, that is, the Passover.”

Jesus’ ministry, miracles, Passion and Resurrection were often of most interest to first- and early-second-century C.E. Christian writers. But over time, Jesus’ origins would become of increasing concern. We can begin to see this shift already in the New Testament. The earliest writings—Paul and Mark—make no mention of Jesus’ birth. The Gospels of Matthew and Luke provide well-known but quite different accounts of the event—although neither specifies a date. In the second century C.E., further details of Jesus’ birth and childhood are related in apocryphal writings such as the Infancy Gospel of Thomas and the Proto-Gospel of James.b These texts provide everything from the names of Jesus’ grandparents to the details of his education—but not the date of his birth.

Finally, in about 200 C.E., a Christian teacher in Egypt makes reference to the date Jesus was born. According to Clement of Alexandria, several different days had been proposed by various Christian groups. Surprising as it may seem, Clement doesn’t mention December 25 at all. Clement writes: “There are those who have determined not only the year of our Lord’s birth, but also the day; and they say that it took place in the 28th year of Augustus, and in the 25th day of [the Egyptian month] Pachon [May 20 in our calendar] … And treating of His Passion, with very great accuracy, some say that it took place in the 16th year of Tiberius, on the 25th of Phamenoth [March 21]; and others on the 25th of Pharmuthi [April 21] and others say that on the 19th of Pharmuthi [April 15] the Savior suffered. Further, others say that He was born on the 24th or 25th of Pharmuthi [April 20 or 21].”2

Clearly there was great uncertainty, but also a considerable amount of interest, in dating Jesus’ birth in the late second century. By the fourth century, however, we find references to two dates that were widely recognized—and now also celebrated—as Jesus’ birthday: December 25 in the western Roman Empire and January 6 in the East (especially in Egypt and Asia Minor). The modern Armenian church continues to celebrate Christmas on January 6; for most Christians, however, December 25 would prevail, while January 6 eventually came to be known as the Feast of the Epiphany, commemorating the arrival of the magi in Bethlehem. The period between became the holiday season later known as the 12 days of Christmas.

The earliest mention of December 25 as Jesus’ birthday comes from a mid-fourth-century Roman almanac that lists the death dates of various Christian bishops and martyrs. The first date listed, December 25, is marked: natus Christus in Betleem Judeae: “Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judea.”3 In about 400 C.E., Augustine of Hippo mentions a local dissident Christian group, the Donatists, who apparently kept Christmas festivals on December 25, but refused to celebrate the Epiphany on January 6, regarding it as an innovation. Since the Donatist group only emerged during the persecution under Diocletian in 312 C.E. and then remained stubbornly attached to the practices of that moment in time, they seem to represent an older North African Christian tradition.

In the East, January 6 was at first not associated with the magi alone, but with the Christmas story as a whole.

So, almost 300 years after Jesus was born, we finally find people observing his birth in mid-winter. But how had they settled on the dates December 25 and January 6?

There are two theories today: one extremely popular, the other less often heard outside scholarly circles (though far more ancient).4

The most loudly touted theory about the origins of the Christmas date(s) is that it was borrowed from pagan celebrations. The Romans had their mid-winter Saturnalia festival in late December; barbarian peoples of northern and western Europe kept holidays at similar times. To top it off, in 274 C.E., the Roman emperor Aurelian established a feast of the birth of Sol Invictus (the Unconquered Sun), on December 25. Christmas, the argument goes, is really a spin-off from these pagan solar festivals. According to this theory, early Christians deliberately chose these dates to encourage the spread of Christmas and Christianity throughout the Roman world: If Christmas looked like a pagan holiday, more pagans would be open to both the holiday and the God whose birth it celebrated.
 


 
In the five-part documentary An Archaeological Search for Jesus, Hershel Shanks travels from Galilee to Jerusalem in search of the first century world in which Jesus lived. Visit Nazareth, Sepphoris, Capernaum, Bethsaida, Qumran and other landmarks as Shanks interviews eminent archaeologists and New Testament scholars about the sites associated with Jesus and other gospel figures.
 

 
Despite its popularity today, this theory of Christmas’s origins has its problems. It is not found in any ancient Christian writings, for one thing. Christian authors of the time do note a connection between the solstice and Jesus’ birth: The church father Ambrose (c. 339–397), for example, described Christ as the true sun, who outshone the fallen gods of the old order. But early Christian writers never hint at any recent calendrical engineering; they clearly don’t think the date was chosen by the church. Rather they see the coincidence as a providential sign, as natural proof that God had selected Jesus over the false pagan gods.

It’s not until the 12th century that we find the first suggestion that Jesus’ birth celebration was deliberately set at the time of pagan feasts. A marginal note on a manuscript of the writings of the Syriac biblical commentator Dionysius bar-Salibi states that in ancient times the Christmas holiday was actually shifted from January 6 to December 25 so that it fell on the same date as the pagan Sol Invictus holiday.5 In the 18th and 19th centuries, Bible scholars spurred on by the new study of comparative religions latched on to this idea.6 They claimed that because the early Christians didn’t know when Jesus was born, they simply assimilated the pagan solstice festival for their own purposes, claiming it as the time of the Messiah’s birth and celebrating it accordingly.

More recent studies have shown that many of the holiday’s modern trappings do reflect pagan customs borrowed much later, as Christianity expanded into northern and western Europe. The Christmas tree, for example, has been linked with late medieval druidic practices. This has only encouraged modern audiences to assume that the date, too, must be pagan.

There are problems with this popular theory, however, as many scholars recognize. Most significantly, the first mention of a date for Christmas (c. 200) and the earliest celebrations that we know about (c. 250–300) come in a period when Christians were not borrowing heavily from pagan traditions of such an obvious character.

Granted, Christian belief and practice were not formed in isolation. Many early elements of Christian worship—including eucharistic meals, meals honoring martyrs and much early Christian funerary art—would have been quite comprehensible to pagan observers. Yet, in the first few centuries C.E., the persecuted Christian minority was greatly concerned with distancing itself from the larger, public pagan religious observances, such as sacrifices, games and holidays. This was still true as late as the violent persecutions of the Christians conducted by the Roman emperor Diocletian between 303 and 312 C.E.

This would change only after Constantine converted to Christianity. From the mid-fourth century on, we do find Christians deliberately adapting and Christianizing pagan festivals. A famous proponent of this practice was Pope Gregory the Great, who, in a letter written in 601 C.E. to a Christian missionary in Britain, recommended that local pagan temples not be destroyed but be converted into churches, and that pagan festivals be celebrated as feasts of Christian martyrs. At this late point, Christmas may well have acquired some pagan trappings. But we don’t have evidence of Christians adopting pagan festivals in the third century, at which point dates for Christmas were established. Thus, it seems unlikely that the date was simply selected to correspond with pagan solar festivals.

The December 25 feast seems to have existed before 312—before Constantine and his conversion, at least. As we have seen, the Donatist Christians in North Africa seem to have known it from before that time. Furthermore, in the mid- to late fourth century, church leaders in the eastern Empire concerned themselves not with introducing a celebration of Jesus’ birthday, but with the addition of the December date to their traditional celebration on January 6.7
 


 
Was Joseph Jesus’ biological father? If not, who was Jesus’ biological father? Andrew Lincoln examines what early Christians thought about conception and explains how views about this subject have changed over time.
 

 
There is another way to account for the origins of Christmas on December 25: Strange as it may seem, the key to dating Jesus’ birth may lie in the dating of Jesus’ death at Passover. This view was first suggested to the modern world by French scholar Louis Duchesne in the early 20th century and fully developed by American Thomas Talley in more recent years.8 But they were certainly not the first to note a connection between the traditional date of Jesus’ death and his birth.

The baby Jesus flies down from heaven on the back of a cross, in this detail from Master Bertram’s 14th-century Annunciation scene. Jesus’ conception carried with it the promise of salvation through his death. It may be no coincidence, then, that the early church celebrated Jesus’ conception and death on the same calendar day: March 25, exactly nine months before December 25. Kunsthalle, Hamburg/Bridgeman Art Library, NY

Around 200 C.E. Tertullian of Carthage reported the calculation that the 14th of Nisan (the day of the crucifixion according to the Gospel of John) in the year Jesus diedc was equivalent to March 25 in the Roman (solar) calendar.9 March 25 is, of course, nine months before December 25; it was later recognized as the Feast of the Annunciation—the commemoration of Jesus’ conception.10 Thus, Jesus was believed to have been conceived and crucified on the same day of the year. Exactly nine months later, Jesus was born, on December 25.d

This idea appears in an anonymous Christian treatise titled On Solstices and Equinoxes, which appears to come from fourth-century North Africa. The treatise states: “Therefore our Lord was conceived on the eighth of the kalends of April in the month of March [March 25], which is the day of the passion of the Lord and of his conception. For on that day he was conceived on the same he suffered.”11 Based on this, the treatise dates Jesus’ birth to the winter solstice.

Augustine, too, was familiar with this association. In On the Trinity (c. 399–419) he writes: “For he [Jesus] is believed to have been conceived on the 25th of March, upon which day also he suffered; so the womb of the Virgin, in which he was conceived, where no one of mortals was begotten, corresponds to the new grave in which he was buried, wherein was never man laid, neither before him nor since. But he was born, according to tradition, upon December the 25th.”12
 


 
Learn about the magi in art and literature in “Witnessing the Divine” by Robin M. Jensen, originally published in Bible Review and now available for free in Bible History Daily.
 

 
In the East, too, the dates of Jesus’ conception and death were linked. But instead of working from the 14th of Nisan in the Hebrew calendar, the easterners used the 14th of the first spring month (Artemisios) in their local Greek calendar—April 6 to us. April 6 is, of course, exactly nine months before January 6—the eastern date for Christmas. In the East, too, we have evidence that April was associated with Jesus’ conception and crucifixion. Bishop Epiphanius of Salamis writes that on April 6, “The lamb was shut up in the spotless womb of the holy virgin, he who took away and takes away in perpetual sacrifice the sins of the world.”13 Even today, the Armenian Church celebrates the Annunciation in early April (on the 7th, not the 6th) and Christmas on January 6.e

Thus, we have Christians in two parts of the world calculating Jesus’ birth on the basis that his death and conception took place on the same day (March 25 or April 6) and coming up with two close but different results (December 25 and January 6).

Connecting Jesus’ conception and death in this way will certainly seem odd to modern readers, but it reflects ancient and medieval understandings of the whole of salvation being bound up together. One of the most poignant expressions of this belief is found in Christian art. In numerous paintings of the angel’s Annunciation to Mary—the moment of Jesus’ conception—the baby Jesus is shown gliding down from heaven on or with a small cross (see photo above of detail from Master Bertram’s Annunciation scene); a visual reminder that the conception brings the promise of salvation through Jesus’ death.

The notion that creation and redemption should occur at the same time of year is also reflected in ancient Jewish tradition, recorded in the Talmud. The Babylonian Talmud preserves a dispute between two early-second-century C.E. rabbis who share this view, but disagree on the date: Rabbi Eliezer states: “In Nisan the world was created; in Nisan the Patriarchs were born; on Passover Isaac was born … and in Nisan they [our ancestors] will be redeemed in time to come.” (The other rabbi, Joshua, dates these same events to the following month, Tishri.)14 Thus, the dates of Christmas and Epiphany may well have resulted from Christian theological reflection on such chronologies: Jesus would have been conceived on the same date he died, and born nine months later.15

In the end we are left with a question: How did December 25 become Christmas? We cannot be entirely sure. Elements of the festival that developed from the fourth century until modern times may well derive from pagan traditions. Yet the actual date might really derive more from Judaism—from Jesus’ death at Passover, and from the rabbinic notion that great things might be expected, again and again, at the same time of the year—than from paganism. Then again, in this notion of cycles and the return of God’s redemption, we may perhaps also be touching upon something that the pagan Romans who celebrated Sol Invictus, and many other peoples since, would have understood and claimed for their own, too.16
 


 
“How December 25 Became Christmas” by Andrew McGowan originally appeared in Bible Review, December 2002.
 

 

Notes

1. Origen, Homily on Leviticus 8.

2. Clement, Stromateis 1.21.145. In addition, Christians in Clement’s native Egypt seem to have known a commemoration of Jesus’ baptism—sometimes understood as the moment of his divine choice, and hence as an alternate “incarnation” story—on the same date (Stromateis 1.21.146). See further on this point Thomas J. Talley, Origins of the Liturgical Year, 2nd ed. (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1991), pp. 118–120, drawing on Roland H. Bainton, “Basilidian Chronology and New Testament Interpretation,” Journal of Biblical Literature 42 (1923), pp. 81–134; and now especially Gabriele Winkler, “The Appearance of the Light at the Baptism of Jesus and the Origins of the Feast of the Epiphany,” in Maxwell Johnson, ed., Between Memory and Hope: Readings on the Liturgical Year (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2000), pp. 291–347.

3. The Philocalian Calendar.

4. Scholars of liturgical history in the English-speaking world are particularly skeptical of the “solstice” connection; see Susan K. Roll, “The Origins of Christmas: The State of the Question,” in Between Memory and Hope: Readings on the Liturgical Year (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2000), pp. 273–290, especially pp. 289–290.

5. A gloss on a manuscript of Dionysius Bar Salibi, d. 1171; see Talley, Origins, pp. 101–102.

6. Prominent among these was Paul Ernst Jablonski; on the history of scholarship, see especially Roll, “The Origins of Christmas,” pp. 277–283.

7. For example, Gregory of Nazianzen, Oratio 38; John Chrysostom, In Diem Natalem.

8. Louis Duchesne, Origines du culte Chrétien, 5th ed. (Paris: Thorin et Fontemoing, 1925), pp. 275–279; and Talley, Origins.

9. Tertullian, Adversus Iudaeos 8.

10. There are other relevant texts for this element of argument, including Hippolytus and the (pseudo-Cyprianic) De pascha computus; see Talley, Origins, pp. 86, 90–91.

11. De solstitia et aequinoctia conceptionis et nativitatis domini nostri iesu christi et iohannis baptistae.

12. Augustine, Sermon 202.

13. Epiphanius is quoted in Talley, Origins, p. 98.

14. b. Rosh Hashanah 10b–11a.

15. Talley, Origins, pp. 81–82.

16. On the two theories as false alternatives, see Roll, “Origins of Christmas.”

a. See Jonathan Klawans, “Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder?” BR 17:05.

b. See the following BR articles: David R. Cartlidge, “The Christian Apocrypha: Preserved in Art,” BR 13:03; Ronald F. Hock, “The Favored One,” BR 17:03; and Charles W. Hedrick, “The 34 Gospels,” BR 18:03.

c. For more on dating the year of Jesus’ birth, see Leonara Neville, “Fixing the Millennium,” AO 03:01.

d. The ancients were familiar with the 9-month gestation period based on the observance of women’s menstrual cycles, pregnancies and miscarriages.

e. In the West (and eventually everywhere), the Easter celebration was later shifted from the actual day to the following Sunday. The insistence of the eastern Christians in keeping Easter on the actual 14th day caused a major debate within the church, with the easterners sometimes referred to as the Quartodecimans, or “Fourteenthers.”

 


 
Formerly Warden and President of Trinity College at the University of Melbourne, Australia, and now President and Dean of the Berkeley Divinity School, Andrew McGowan’s work on early Christianity includes God in Early Christian Thought (Brill, 2009) and Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (Oxford, 1999).

Posted in Jesus/Historical Jesus, New Testament.

Tagged with , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

Add Your Comments

235 Responses

Stay in touch with the conversation, subscribe to the RSS feed for comments on this post.

  1. korailstory.net says

    I have not checked in here for some time since I thought it was getting boring, but the
    last several posts are great quality so I guess I will add you back to my daily bloglist.
    You deserve it my friend :)

  2. top says

    When it comes to gift ideas, abstain from just giving cash.
    Issuing cash definitely sends out the message,
    “I could not be side tracked to think excessively for you, so there you go, that’s more or less what you are worth for me.”

  3. Luke says

    How is it logical that Jesus was born in any of these months when he was born approximately 6 months after John the Baptist, whom was born in March? :/

  4. Rachel says

    Thanks for this well-researched, fascinating piece. I included a link to it in my blog post “The reason for the season?” in which I try to imagine what Christmas looks like to outsiders. It’s here if you want to see it: http://www.theunpackagedeye.com/the-reason-for-the-season/

  5. Gary says

    Tishri is NOT the next month after Nisan. Tishri is the SIXTH month after Nisan. The order is Nisan, Iyar (or Iyyar), Sivan, Tammuz, Ab, Elul, Tishri. (Then, after Tishri, Heshvan, Kislev, Tebet, Shebat, Adar (and sometimes,seven out of each nineteen years,Second Adar. that is, Adar Sheni or Veadar), and then Nisan again.

  6. Dee says

    Gary, What exactly does that mean then ?

  7. Mark says

    Thank you for this excellent article. I’m generally persuaded by the second suggestion.

    One small correction: re your point 14, Tishrei is not the month following Nissan; they are at opposite ends of the calendar. Each is described as the first month of the year in different contexts, hence this Talmudic debate. The Jewish holiday Rosh HaShanah, (New Year) is celebrated on the first of Tishrei. Passover, marking the Exodus, is celebrated in Nissan. If Tishrei is first, Nissan is seventh, and vice versa.

    Question: Why is common new year celebrated on January 1st? I’ve heard that it marks the date of Jesus’s circumcision, assuming his birth on December 25th. Is that so?

  8. Emmet says

    The answer is actually simpler than all that. Revelation 12 tells the exact time of birth to the 45 min window. The Virgin clothed with the sun = Virgo-September, clothed with the Sun =Mid. The moon appearing at the feet of Virgo/Virgin only occurs every 30 years. astronomy software confirms that this occurred September 11, 3 B.C. The new moon confirms that this occured on Rosh HaShannah that year. It was also the fall lambing season. The animals used for sacrifice for even the pagan nations by Jews on Yom Kippur 10 days later were set apart specifically in the stables of Bethlehem. According to John Mosley L.A. Observatory there was also a convergence of Jupiter, Regulas and Saturn that day. In the Middle East and amongst Jews at the time, births are reckoned from the time of conception. Therefore, by back tracking from September 11, we arrive at December 25. So both dates of birth would be correct depending on which culture is reckoning the birth. Since Yehoshua/Jesus is for all people both birthdays are legitimate. Dec 25 is equivalent to the winter solstice in that when earth is at its darkest moment light will increase each day there after. It also occurs during Chanukah when the Eternal Light was relit and the temple (Also called the Light of the World) rededicated/revisited.

  9. Chris says

    Why are you all so fascinated with the Babylonian Calender.

  10. Marcia says

    Mark,

    May you find this someday (which is doubtful): I was told that we have Julius Caesar to thank for our year’s beginning on Jan. 1st. The Romans’ year used to begin in the spring, which is what seems most natural to me, too. Superstition said they weren’t supposed to go to war until the new year, but Caesar couldn’t wait and so he changed the calendar.

    I liked the article above, although I was annoyed by the author’s use of the new dating term C.E. I refuse to use it and think we should insist on the Latin anno domini, year of our Lord. The funny thing is that C.E. can just be read “Christian era”.

  11. Precious says

    I really think 25th of December is quite cool and okay for the Christmas celebration,so far we celebrate it in a Godly way because the Holy Bible says that what we Christians agree on earth is agreed in heaven.

  12. boyke says

    No matter when Christmas is celebrate..it is good to make the same calendar with the whole world then we debate when Christ was born.Christmas is a joyful day for all people in the world because Christ is born in our heart and give us a salvation.

  13. Carol says

    This is what the Honorable Elijah Muhammad said back in the 30′s.

  14. Freedomborn says

    Sorry Andrew, you are in error, the Scriptures show very clearly that the 25 of December is Christ’s Birthdate , I’m sure if you asked God for His wisdom, you than you would also see clearly this Truth

    Christian Love from us both – Anne

  15. Charlene says

    If you follow the time as stated that Mary went to visit her cousin Elisabeth (the mother of John the Baptist) when her cousin was in her sixth month of pregnancy and the time Zacharias was returning from his course in the temple (when she would have gotten pregnant) it actually figures out to the end of September or the beginning of October.

  16. Charles says

    Go to the source for the answer to when he was born………

    He was born in the Month of Tishrei – the start of the Feast of Tabernacles

    5. The Bible is full of seemingly mundane, useless or even boring information and some treat it as unimportant and just read over it. Ever read Deuteronomy? Lots of numbers dealing with the Jewish tribes, why? After careful analysis one can determine that the Jewish Tabernacle encampment when view from a higher elevation formed a figure of the cross. I put it to you that everything in the Bible is there for a purpose and so the details in the Gospels about the times of the conceptions of John the Baptist and Jesus are there for a reason.
    6. What clues of Jesus’ birth are in the Bible? The key to figuring out the birthday of Jesus is through the priestly duties of, Zecharias, the father of John the Baptist and subsequent references to the conception and birth of John. Bear with me as we delve into this.
    a) The date of this event can be determined from Zecharias’ duty as he was of the eighth course of Levite Priest. The twelve courses are explained in 1 Chronicles 24:7-19.
    Luk 1:5 There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth.
    a) John’s mother Elisabeth had conceived him shortly after her husband’s ministrations in the Temple were completed;
    Luk 1:23 And it came to pass, that, as soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished, he departed to his own house.
    Luk 1:24 And after those days his wife Elisabeth conceived, and hid herself five months
    b) This tells of the timing of John’s conception but not the date. We must go to an event in John’s life which is his age is known and count backwards to ascertain his conception and birthday. The Bible states the time John began his ministry. Since he was a Levite he could not assume priestly duties until his 30th birthday.
    Luk 3:1 Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,
    Luk 3:2 Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.
    Luk 3:3 And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins;
    c) This establishes John was 30 years old in Tiberius’ 15th year corresponding to the year spanning 28 to 29 A.D. based upon when Tiberius was Emperor. (See para 6e.)
    d) Counting back from the destruction of the Temple (para 6h) and working out when the 8th course was in office at the time for conception for birth through 30 years of age for John puts the date Zecharias finished his duty was 13 Dec 3 B.C. This puts the birth of John at 19-20 Apr 2 B.C. (precisely on Passover of that year)
    e) The Bible tell us when the Holy Spirit conceived in Mary.
    Luk 1:31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
    Luk 1:36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.
    f) Since John was five months in the womb before Jesus that puts Jesus’ birthday at about 27 to 29 Sept 2 B.C., It is interesting to note at that moment in time was Israel’s Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashana) which was on 29 Sept 2 B.C.
    g) The Feast of Trumpets changes each year, much like Passover, because these are calculated according to a lunar calendar. And so, whereas the Feast of Trumpets fell on September 29 back in 2 B.C., it fell on sundown (1st of Tishrei) on September 16 in 2012 A.D. This is properly Jesus’ 2010th birthday according to the Hebrew calendar which in year 5773.
    7. With Jesus’ birthday known we can also now place him in a historical timeline to determine when his family departed to Egypt.
    a) He was not a new born and not in the manger when the Magi brought him gifts because the family was in a house. At this time the family fled into Egypt after the Magi departed.
    Mat 2:11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.
    Mat 2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.
    Mat 2:14 When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt:
    b) We know from the Bible and history that the young boys from the age of 2 and younger in Bethlehem and surrounding areas were killed by Herod’s men before his death on 14 Jan 1 B.C. so the family had fled before this date.
    Mat 2:16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.
    This is prophesied in Jer 31:15; “Thus saith Jehovah: A voice is heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children; she refuseth to be comforted for her children, because they are not.”

    8. What do secular historians record about this period?
    a) The historian Josephus writes that King Herod dies during the year of an eclipse which was on 29 Dec 1 B.C.
    b) The Magillath Ta’anith Jewish scroll reports King Herod died on 14 Jan 1 B.C.
    c) The historian Ireaneous states that Jesus was born in the 41st year of Augustus Caesar’s rule.
    d) The historian Tertullian reports Augustus rule started 41 years before Jesus birth and died on 19 Aug 14 A.D., 15 years after he was born. This places Jesus’ birth in the year 2 B.C.
    e) Tiberius Caesar ascends to the throne after his father Augustus’ death.
    f) Tertullian also records in his histories that Jesus was born 28 years after the death of Cleopatra in 30 B.C. which also places Jesus’ birth in the autumn of 2 B.C.
    g) The son of King Herod, Archelaus, does not assume his late father’s throne but waits until Rome grants him leadership in Judea in 6 A.D. after the Census of Quirinius is taken. From the Talmud and Josephus.
    h) The Temple was destroyed when the 1st Levite Priest course of office had just started. (Jehoiarib) The Talmud and Josephus give this date as 5 Aug 70 A.D.

    9. These following passages I have added from Chuck Missler’s “The Christmas Story, What Really Happened?”
    a) Up till now each year at Christmas time on December 25th we celebrated the birth of Jesus Christ. After the New Year, we added another year to our calendar, which should remind us that the entire Western World reckons its calendar from the birth of the One who changed the world more than any other before or since. Yet, it is disturbing to discover that much of what we have been taught about the Christmas season seems to be more tradition than truth.
    b) Most serious Bible believers realize that Jesus was probably not born on December 25th. The shepherds had their flocks in open fields, which implies a date prior to October. Furthermore, no competent Roman administrator would require registration involving travel during the season when Judea was generally impassable.
    c) If Jesus wasn’t born on December 25, just when was he born? Although the Bible doesn’t explicitly identify the birthday of our Lord, many scholars have developed diverse opinions as to the likely birthday of Jesus.
    d) The early Christian church did not celebrate Jesus’ birth, and therefore the exact date was not preserved in festivals. The first recorded mention of December 25th is in the Calendar of Philocalus (AD 354), which assumed Jesus’ birth to be Friday, December 25th, AD 1. This was subsequent to Constantine’s Edict of Toleration in AD 313, which officially ended the government-sanctioned persecution of the Christians. The date of December 25th, which was officially proclaimed by the church fathers in AD 440, was actually a vestige of the Roman holiday of Saturnalia, observed near the winter solstice, which itself was among the many pagan traditions inherited from the earlier Babylonian priesthood.
    10. In conclusion I believe a reasonable accounting can be made for the birthdate for Jesus. Also as another side note, the Hebrew tradition was not to celebrate birthdays, however, the Bible is full of announcements of his pending and actual birth. For what it’s worth.
    11. The Bible notes two birthday celebrations both ending with beheading executions, the Pharaoh’s butler and John the Baptist. Also Ecclesiastes makes mention of a birthdays importance, 7:1 A good name is better than precious oil; and the day of death, than a birth day.
    12. So this as the date for the birth of Lord Jesus, what do we do with this knowledge?
    13. Why is it important that we know when Jesus was born? We certainly do not use this knowledge to celebrate His birthday—He tells us to commemorate His death, not His birth (I Cor11:23-26). The true date, however, destroys the entire foundation of the Christmas holiday. It also points to the proper time of His ministry, crucifixion and resurrection, helping to disprove the Good Friday—Easter Sunday tradition also. Lastly, and maybe most importantly, it renews our faith in God’s Word—that it is true, verifiable and historically accurate.
    14. In addition, we should know even these details so that we can provide common-sense reasons for our beliefs. We live in a world of compromise and confusion—especially in the realm of religion—and thus we must study and follow what is true so we will not be fooled by what is counterfeit. The Christmas season promotes a lie concerning the date of the birth of Jesus Christ. We need to do more than reject the world’s explanation; we need to know, prove and follow what is true.

  17. Kelly says

    Why do you use C.E. (Common Era) rather than the more common A.D.? The use of C.E. seems a bit strange, considering the publication is Biblical Archeology. Common Era is the term used when secularists want to omit references to the historical Jesus.

  18. Gary says

    Yeshua may have been a Virgo. The ancients believed that you had major and minor stars. Virgo (the harvester, often shown with a loaf of bread) is the major sign; the minor sign is six months later; in this case, Pisces. The loaves and the fishes. Now, where have I heard of that before? The Jews put some stock in astrology, due to their time in Babylon. That puts Yeshua between 8-22 and 9-21, when the flocks were still in the fields. Back then, they were in paddocks by October, being fed hay. Twins (Gemini) in Genesis; bulls (Taurus) in Egypt; Rams (Aires) in the desert; harvester (Virgo) until now; the lion (Leo) from here on — Then Cancer, in 2160 years — yet to be written — every 2160 years it changes, both major and minor signs…Gemini goes with Sagittarius (archer) — pre-Egypt; Taurus with Scorpio (scorpion) — Egypt and the desert; Aires goes with Libra (scales) — The Ram and judgment under the Law; Virgo with Pisces — the harvest and those drawn from the sea of man; Leo with Aquarius (the water bearer) — the lion of God and living waters; and Cancer (the crab) with Capricorn (the goat.) So, the Crab and the Goat are next, the beast out of the sea and the scapegoat / antichrist, for 2160 years. According to how I read the Revelation. The 2160 year ages is relative, adjustable. Now, go and reread your Old Testament. This will all be in my book someday.

  19. Gary says

    Mark, C.E. (Christian Era) is used now precisely because of the uncertainty of the year of Yeshua’s birth. When they finally pin it down, then A.D. can be recalculated with certainty. The Feast of Trumpets also makes sense, due to travel / harvesting concerns. Plus the presence of all of the heralds with trumpets you see in art. It is a subconscious, anecdotal, verbal history sort of thing.

  20. Gene R. says

    I believe the evidence presented, convinces me that Jesus was not born on December 25 which has all the trappings of Saturnalia and the god Mithras who was said to have been born on December 25. I believe a balmy night in the fall about late September or early October, 2 C.E was most likely the correct time. I would also like to bring up a side issue–two things that I don’t believe have been brought up is the mysterious “star” that led the magi and when did the magi actually get to Bethlehem (Matthew Chapter 2)? It has been assumed that God sent the star. Since the star apparently led the magi ( astrologers) to King Herod first instead of to Bethlehem, we wonder about the origin of this star. Herod, on being told of the birth and the star, told the astrologers to come back when they found the child and report to him so he could also do obeisance to the child. Of course Herod actually wanted to kill Jesus while still a child because he no doubt considered him a threat to his dynasty. This strange light, which most certainly was not actually a star, then led the magi directly to Jesus who was now a child in a home. The magi were warned in a dream not to go back to Herod and thus they went home by a different route.
    Remember by now some time had passed since these astrologers first saw the star signaling Jesus birth, somewhere in “eastern parts.” Once Herod realized the magi had outwitted him, Matt. 2:16 says Herod ” fell into a great rage, and he sent out and had all the boys in Bethlehem and in all the districts done away with, from two years of age and under, ACCORDING TO THE TIME HE HAD CAREFULLY ASCERTAINED FROM THE ASTROLOGERS.” No one else is reported as having seen the “star”. Without God’s intervention the, child Jesus could have been killed. So why the star? Its origin seems sinister to me–an attempt to have the future Messiah killed . Who else besides Herod would like to see this child killed? 2 Corinthians 11:14 says, “For Satan him self keeps transforming himself into an angel of light.”

  21. Scott says

    Christ’s life coincides with the biblical Hebrew feasts that His father established when leading the Israelites through the desert. Most Christians already know that He was sacrificed as the Passover lamb on Passover. Fittingly, He was born on the Feast of Tabernacles (autumn), the Hebrew feast that commemorates when God came to dwell with His people in the desert (as the pillar of cloud), and then as a baby (Jesus). EVERYTHING about Jesus’s birth, death, resurrection, and second coming revolves around the feasts – the whole idea of the feasts was to prophesy about Him! Get to know the feasts and everything about Jesus will become clear.

  22. David says

    Great article. Here is another:
    http://www.touchstonemag.com/archives/article.php?id=16-10-012-v

  23. Cynthia says

    Reviewing Charles information, it becomes apparent that he has lost track of gestation calculations.
    if John was conceived in mid December, he was born in September, not April. That makes
    Jesus birth in January or possibly end of December. That would fit with the evidence of the new brilliant star. That is not myth, it is documented in astronomy records from China and Korea. Supernova have been documented to be visible to the naked eye up to 21 months. Contemporary astronomers believe it was likely a nova or supernova rather than a conjunction of planets. Roman historians also mention it appearing during the reign of Cesar Augustus, and it appeared on his coins . Those coins are also the first where he is titled PATER which was bestowed on him in February 2BC. That is documented in his Res Gestae which was carved on temples throughout the empire and can still be seen today in his temple in Ankara, Turkey. Contemporary rulers of states outside the empire also put stars on their coins next to the kings portrait, from Phraates IV of Parthia to Celtic tribes in Britain. This “new Star” outshone everything and was visible over a wide area and from Korea through the Middle East to Rome. there were astronomers whose full time job was to observe the heavens, because they associated their gods with certain constellations and felt the stars influenced events on earth. Herod , and every other ruler of that time,would have taken this new star very seriously. Since it occurred during Augustus’s reign he took it as a mark of special favor and approval from the gods and supported his deification at his death.

  24. Sean says

    I hate to bring science into this conversation, but in regards to your second hypothesis, the idea that it is exactly nine months is a bit of a problem since the actual gestational period of a human being is 38-40 weeks. Maybe messiahs just take a little less time to bake, on average.

  25. Frederick says

    Charlene seems to have the most biblical answer, leading us to the Feast of Tabernacles. If this brings a link to his second coming at that time of the year, the feast of Trumpets would be a good herald. Any thoughts?

  26. Gene R. says

    The “star” that led the magi to King Herod and then to the house Jesus lived in, at age 2 or under, stopped directly over the house Jesus lived in (Matthew 2:9). This was no super-nova. It was a light that moved and stopped at will. The magi(astrologers) interpreted the light as some sort of star, but no star or supernova would act like this. Can you look up and see a star that is directly above your house. Go a mile from there to another house and see if the star also looks directly above that house.
    The source of this mysterious light seemed to be interested in revealing to Herod where the child was so Herod could kill him, that is why the “star” led the magi to King Herod first. God’s adversary, the evil one, would not want this child Jesus to grow up because Genesis 3:15 predicted the Messiah (the seed) would ultimately crush Satan. Remember that the magi were astrologers not astronomers. Astrology was forbidden by Jehovah (Yahweh) in his laws to the Jews (Isaiah 47: 13,14) so it not likely that He would use such persons to announce the birth of the Messiah. Please read all of Matthew Chapter 2 to understand the context of what was happening. In Luke 2:8-11 we have the official announcement of Jesus birth from angels telling the shepherds.

  27. mayreeA says

    A lie is a lie. We as Christian are supposed to worship God in spirit and in truth. A true believer will not continue to believe or carry on a lie. Jesus was born without a doubt but he was not born on December 25. If this was all important he would have left some proof as to when, the more important aspect of his life is if you believe a lie then you cannot live the life he died for you to live and that is to get closer to God the father.

  28. Samuel says

    Per Luke 2 and Daniel’s prophesy one knows Jesus was born in September. Historical fact is Roman tax day was Sept 2nd. The world went to be taxed (2nd), Mary was GREAT w/child and DAYS later Jesus was born. The Festival of Trumpets was when the Jews crowned a King: in 4 BC (from Daniel’s prophesy) that day was on Sept 9th – 7 days later.

    From the time of Babylon Dec 25 was for Tammuz as he resurrected that day and Baal the sun god incarnated him and took him to heaven……. Per Amos 5:26 you can find who the Baal worshipers are if you search hard enough.

  29. water says

    I enjoy what you guys tend to be up too. This type of clever work and exposure!
    Keep up the superb works guys I’ve incorporated you
    guys to blogroll.

  30. Shuvro says

    I really love to read more about Christmas and ancient history of Christmas. This is vey helpful for me to share in my prayer service

  31. http://www.masterofgames.org/hacks/battlefield-3/ says

    Hey there just wanted to give you a brief heads up and
    let you know a few of the pictures aren’t
    loading correctly. I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue.
    I’ve tried it in two different web browsers and both show the same outcome.

  32. www.roundmountainfalls.com says

    It can make it the first choice with the users as well as the most wanted and
    comfortable P2P torrent engine ever produced in the world.

    Do you think that that you can’t make someone fall
    in love with you. There are a number of small business women can take part in
    that would not separate them from other site from their responsibilities in your family.

  33. Truth says

    Great Article. Thank you. One problem though–can you please STOP USING the term C.E. ?
    It is A.D. This secularizing and dishonoring of Jesus Christ should not be engaged in by His people. Stop pandering to the idiot unbelievers who invent ways to dishonor Christ. It is 2014 AD.

  34. tapani says

    Sol invicta- feast is good for Jesus, the sun of the rightiousness. Original christians did not know birthday’ s feast, but dying was important as a step to the heaven. Martyrdom also was suitable in this mind. But in Egypt in the third century a coptic bishop ordered to sing “on that night” a song, which is the eastern Septuaginta “odae 14″ “Doksa en hypsistois Theoo kai eirene epi tes ges”. It is found as a workinp up in Finnish Hymnbook, Virsikirja n:r 126 and in Evangelishe Gesangbuch (D) 180:3 with “Wir loben dich, wir beten dich” – beginning. (Holy Communion Hymn) This bishop “knew” the birthday of Jesus in the kind of east 6 or 7. January. Also the day of John the Pabtizer was a motive, age difference 6 months. More important as day, is that Jesus was born.

  35. Tim says

    Constantine was a great Emperor and Christian. He favored Christians. He defended Christians. He built Churches. He returned all confiscated property to Christians. He fought against those who persecuted Christians. He supported all Christian pastors and bishops. He tried to unite all Christians. He (in all likelihood) asked Bishops to come up with One Bible. He fought against false teachers. He gave us Christmas. He even got baptized in water at the end of his life, for public reference, cause water baptism is not necessary. Spirit Baptism is. But what is the general opinion even among Christians in our times. No, he was not a Christian. He was just using them for political reasons. Unbelievable!

  36. Howard says

    Happy Conception day Jesus, December 25 each Jewish feast day is a shadow of Jesus’ (human) life. And the winter feast, was the Feast of Light, and when did Jesus the Light of the world come to earth? At conception!

  37. Sterbeversicherung says

    Ist diese Versicherungsleistung einer Sterbegeldversicherung nicht ausreichend, weil nicht die Absicherung einer Beerdigung im Vordergrund steht, sondern die eines Lebenspartners bzw. einer Familie, sollte man auf unserer Homepage mit der Risikolebensversicherung eine Alternative berechnen. So ist gewährleistet, dass die Hinterbliebenen und Angehörigen für die Kosten der Bestattung ausreichend abgesichert sind. Um das Leben abzusichern, hat der Verbraucher also verschiedene Möglichkeiten. Für die Vorsorge der eigenen Trauerfeier und Bestattung ist aber immer die Sterbeversicherung die erste Alternative. Eine Risikoleben kann diese Aufgabe nicht zufriedenstellend lösen. Eine Absicherung für den Fall eines Unfalles kann nur als Zusatzversicherung, wenn es um die Absicherung der Kosten einer Bestattung geht, gesehen werden.

  38. Rowena says

    Christ’ birth is unknown so shall be his second coming. If any Christians wants to be really dogmatic about Christian festivities?! We should be following the Biblical festivities and calendar and not the pagan calendars and feasts.

  39. Lee says

    You can get rough estimate of the time of his birth by going back to the birth of John and the Angels announcement to Zachariah of the birth of John. The Bible does give these times. By using this calendar Christ’s birth seems to coincide with Hanukkah. Which wouldn’t that be just like God to fulfill a holiday, hanukkah is a festival of lights Jesus came to the world to bring light.

  40. Dennis says

    The commenters are much closer to the truth than the writer of the article.

    It is possible to find out Jesus birth date by examining the courses in the temple for John’s father Zachariah.

    ….the start of the Feast of Tabernacles….

    The month is right but the proper feast is the feast of the trumpets. The trumpeting heralds in the gospels as well as the entire concept of the types and shadows of old testament law conforming to illustrating Jesus support that date.

  41. tapani says

    Yes, during the Bible time “it was better to go to a house of mourning than to house of feasting”. Birth was as an empty vessel but death a full one. Nativity had no interest. However the Coptic church in Egypt solved a problem of “Jesus in Egypt”. They developed tradition of long time visit. As from BAR article puts forward there was yrs 200-300 when a bishop ordeded to sing by it night a hymn what is in the Easter Septuaginta: odai 14: “Doksa en hypsistois Theoo”, the prototype of later carols.(Consist also easter material, the communion hymn!) Two Christmas dates come from the beginning, other was feasted in Israel area and another locally. Also different calendars may point to the same day. 25.12. comes even from biblical calculations but the point is that Jesus is born. The time is framework of the christian feast.

  42. Mark says

    Luke tells us when Jesus was born. He assumed that we, the readers of his Gospel, would know that Mary and Joseph would make their census registration trip to Bethlehem during one of their three annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem. He also tells when Jesus’ cousin John was conceived (when his father of the clan of Abijah was on duty at the Temple; mid summer between Hanukkahs), and that Jesus was conceived six months later (Hanukkah; Jesus is the Light unto the World and Hanukkah is the Festival of Lights). That would put Jesus’ birth during the fall pilgrimage festival of Sukkot/Festival of Booths. Luke also tells us that Jesus was born when Quinarius was Governor – 4BC.
    John would have been born at Passover. Jews set an extra setting or keep a door open for the arrival of Elijah and John is the Spirit of Elijah. The first Sukkah was the shelter that Jacob/Israel built for his animals; in Christianese, a manger. Jesus was born on the Feast of Mangers, 4BC ! ! !

  43. Michael says

    I am offended by this piece. You may have researched the reason behind the dates and the reason the Church chose the dates, but that doesn’t change the reason for the season is Jesus. Just because we chose dates that correspond to those dates doesn’t change the fact that Christmas should be centered around Jesus. Whether we celebrate it in winter, spring, summer or fall, the Christmas season is still about Jesus. As Christians we say the reason for the Christmas season is Jesus, not the reason we celebrate Jesus’s birth on December 25 is the reason for the season. All of you who responded to the greatness of the article and the author need a lesson in English. You clearly don’t understand how the language works.

  44. Andrew says

    In terms of the East celebrating on Jan 6th, that is actually December 25th on the Julian Calendar, once the West switched to Gregorian Calendar, the Julian calendar is 13 days late.

  45. Daniel says

    Modern scripture tells us that April 6th is the day that Jesus was born. The reference can be found in the book of The Doctrine and Covenants, section 20 verse 1.

  46. Dele says

    My conclusion: Although I was unable to read all above, but if Jesus was and is God, He cannot be born. So, the Bible did not give us His birthday and we should be careful of what we say about His birth. Creator God was not born, Jesus was presented as a sacrifice to us and we should not focus on His birth for He was from the foundation of the world; He cannot just be attached to a point in human history. If He has no birthday, He has no age, for God is ageless and Jesus as One of the Trinity is ageless for they are all one and the same. I was taught that Jesus was 100% God and 100% human when He was physically on earth. His divinity supersede His humanity; as a Divine being, He was not born by humans-He was a virgin birth, in-explainable though.

  47. jeewan says

    If you write here point by point we feel good but it’s not a bad. Some things I want remained you when do start celebrate of Christmas? and How to start of Christmas celebrate?

1 2 3

Continuing the Discussion

  1. this went thru my mind | linked to this post on December 8, 2012

    [...] * How December 25 Became Christmas by Andrew McGowan; * Separating Fact from Fiction in the Nativity Story – Christmas Myths Exposed [...]

  2. December 25th and Christmas: Pagan or Jewish? « Nineteenth Dynasty linked to this post on December 10, 2012

    [...] article on December 25th and Christmas – biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical… [...]

  3. Christmas and December 25 | Leadingchurch.com linked to this post on December 10, 2012

    [...] From Biblical Archeology. This is about how Jesus birth got put in Christmas. Share this:EmailPrintFacebookTwitterGoogle +1MoreDiggRedditStumbleUponLike this:LikeBe the first to like this. This entry was posted in Daily Links and Notes. Bookmark the permalink. ← Advocacy vs. Accountability [...]

  4. How December 25 Became Christmas « Vine Of Life News linked to this post on December 15, 2012

    [...] indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time.1 As far as we can tell, Christmas was not celebrated at all at this [...]

  5. Was Jesus Born On Christmas? linked to this post on December 15, 2012

    [...] Andrew McGowan   •  12/07/2012  Thanks to Biblical Archaeology [...]

  6. How December 25 Became Christmas « The Ginger Jar linked to this post on December 16, 2012

    [...] indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time.1 As far as we can tell, Christmas was not celebrated at all at this [...]

  7. The Twelve Links of Christmas | Watch Heavenlyvideo linked to this post on December 22, 2012

    [...] How December 25 Became Christmas, in case you’ve ever wondered. [...]

  8. The true meaning of Christmas(‘s date) | Jaskology linked to this post on December 22, 2012

    [...] Read here for more details. [...]

  9. Why do we celebrate Jesus’s birth on December 25? | Holy Post | National Post linked to this post on December 24, 2012

    [...] Continue reading at Bible History Daily RelatedHoly miscalculation: The entire Christian calendar is based on a sixth-century monk’s ‘mistake,’ Pope saysKelly McParland: Why the Pope’s new book provides an historic opportunity to delink Christ from Dec. 25How much of the Christmas story is really true? [...]

  10. Why December 25> | Tim Archer's Kitchen of Half-Baked Thoughts linked to this post on December 24, 2012

    [...] Christmas because Christians were trying to “sanctify” a Roman feast. However, an article by Andrew McGowan changed my [...]

  11. Why December 25th? [reblog] « The Lonely Disciple linked to this post on December 24, 2012

    [...] great article from the website of Biblical Archaeology Magazine: How December 25 Became Christmas The Bible offers few clues: Celebrations of Jesus’ Nativity are not mentioned in the Gospels or [...]

  12. On the Date of the Eve of the Celebration of Christ’s Birth » A Few Good Words linked to this post on December 24, 2012

    [...] Both the blogs refer to an article in Biblical History Daily, “How December 25 Became Christmas,” located here http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-topics/new-testament/how-december-25-became-christ… [...]

  13. How December 25 Became Christmas « Samwel Bartolo 2012/2013 linked to this post on December 25, 2012

    [...] indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time.1 As far as we can tell, Christmas was not celebrated at all at this [...]

  14. Why Celebrate Christmas When We Do? » First Thoughts | A First Things Blog linked to this post on December 26, 2012

    [...] pagans. Not so, apparently. Here is William J. Tighe on Calculating Christmas and Andrew McGowan on How December 25 Became Christmas. McGowan writes: There is another way to account for the origins of Christmas on December 25: [...]

  15. CHRISTMAS AFTERMATH « the heart thrills linked to this post on December 26, 2012

    [...] (1)McGowan, Andrew. “How December 25 Became Christmas”, http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-topics/new-testament/how-december-25-became-christ… [...]

  16. Dating Christmas « thereformedmind linked to this post on December 27, 2012

    [...] indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time.1 As far as we can tell, Christmas was not celebrated at all at this [...]

  17. Christmas Readings linked to this post on December 30, 2012

    [...] — Celebrating Christmas in the Face of Grief and DeathChurch History: The Real Story of SantaHow December 25 Became ChristmasLet Every Heart Prepare Him RoomShould a Christian Celebrate Christmas?Should Christians celebrate [...]

  18. The 5:2 Diet – Christmas | Land of Oak and Iron linked to this post on December 31, 2012

    [...] however much it’s disputed whether Christians simply borrowed December 25th from the Roman Sol Invictus cult which celebrated [...]

  19. How December 25 Became Christmas | press-inside linked to this post on January 5, 2013

    [...] from January 6 to December 25 so that it fell on the same date as the pagan Sol Invictus holiday.5 In the 18th and 19th centuries, Bible scholars spurred on by the new study of comparative religions [...]

  20. How December 25 Became Christmas – Biblical Archaeology Society | Merolog Web Host linked to this post on January 24, 2013

    [...] How December 25 Became Christmas – Biblical Archaeology Society Tags: christmas, [...]

  21. When the Christians met the Pagans | Bjørn Stærk linked to this post on May 11, 2013

    [...] was taken from the Roman celebration of Sol Invictus. More plausibly, December 25 happens to be 9 months after the death of Jesus. This would mean that he was killed and conceived on the same day, a nice [...]

  22. Could Seventh-day Adventist Celebrate Christmas? | Simul Justus Et Peccator Blog linked to this post on August 22, 2013

    [...] [15] Finally, in about 200 C.E., a Christian teacher in Egypt makes reference to the date Jesus was born. According to Clement of Alexandria, several different days had been proposed by various Christian groups. Surprising as it may seem, Clement doesn’t mention December 25 at all. Clement writes: “There are those who have determined not only the year of our Lord’s birth, but also the day; and they say that it took place in the 28th year of Augustus, and in the 25th day of [the Egyptian month] Pachon [May 20 in our calendar] … And treating of His Passion, with very great accuracy, some say that it took place in the 16th year of Tiberius, on the 25th of Phamenoth [March 21]; and others on the 25th of Pharmuthi [April 21] and others say that on the 19th of Pharmuthi [April 15] the Savior suffered. Further, others say that He was born on the 24th or 25th of Pharmuthi [April 20 or 21].” See: Clement, Stromateis 1.21.145. In addition, Christians in Clement’s native Egypt seem to have known a commemoration of Jesus’ baptism—sometimes understood as the moment of his divine choice, and hence as an alternate “incarnation” story—on the same date (Stromateis 1.21.146). See further on this point Thomas J. Talley, Origins of the Liturgical Year, 2nd ed. (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1991), pp. 118–120, drawing on Roland H. Bainton, “Basilidian Chronology and New Testament Interpretation,” Journal of Biblical Literature 42 (1923), pp. 81–134; and now especially Gabriele Winkler, “The Appearance of the Light at the Baptism of Jesus and the Origins of the Feast of the Epiphany,” in Maxwell Johnson, ed., Between Memory and Hope: Readings on the Liturgical Year (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2000), pp. 291–347. I am indebted to Andrew McGowan, on his article entitled, “How December 25 Became Christmas,” (http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-topics/new-testament/how-december-25-became-christ…). [...]

  23. The 12 things I hate about Christmas | blondehairbrowndog linked to this post on November 11, 2013

    [...] 2. Jesus wasn’t even BORN in December. He was more likely born in March.  Not the Winter. Do you really think that the Shepherds would have been tending to their flock outside in the middle of winter? No. It gets cold in Israel . It snows. Just not on Jesus’ birthday. There’s a great article about how December 25th became Christmas here [...]

  24. Voice in the Wilderness linked to this post on November 17, 2013

    [...] related in apocryphal writings such as the Infancy Gospel of Thomas and the Proto-Gospel of James.b These texts provide everything from the names of Jesus’ grandparents to the details of his [...]

  25. Christian Christmas Grinches | Briarwood & Cloud linked to this post on November 20, 2013

    [...] As though the Incarnation is not an essential, miraculous, mysterious, wondrous faith event to be contemplated and meditated on and celebrated in… oh… say February.  As though Jesus was really born on December 25th. [...]

  26. How the real meaning of Christmas has been forgotten by Ken Grant | Celebrations 360 linked to this post on November 25, 2013

    [...] Jesus. While the Easter celebration tradition is very early in the Christian historical record, the Christmas celebration took more time to develop. It was not until the fourth century that the western church tradition [...]

  27. How December 25th Became Christmas | New Life Narrabri linked to this post on December 1, 2013

    [...] indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time.1 As far as we can tell, Christmas was not celebrated at all at this [...]

  28. The Christmas Propaganda War | Daniel Tomberlin linked to this post on December 2, 2013

    [...] honoring the Roman god Saturn. Early Christians had speculated that Jesus was born on December 25 (click here for more). The public controversy was political and [...]

  29. Word Up 245 — New Church Family newsletter | GayDaytona.com linked to this post on December 4, 2013

    [...] For more details, here is the link to McGowan’s article — http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-topics/new-testament/how-december-25-became-christ… [...]

  30. The reason for the season? | The Unpackaged Eye linked to this post on December 4, 2013

    [...] a claim than Jesus to be “the reason for the season” of Christmas. Scholars have also proposed that the date of Christmas was set at nine months after the Passover, on the assumption that Jesus [...]

  31. This Week’s Best in Catholic Apologetics -/- DavidLGray.INFO linked to this post on December 6, 2013

    [...] Abortion Is a Threat to the Very Existence of the Nation – Agenzia Fides TIMELY CLASSIC: How December 25 Became Christmas – Andrew McGowan VIDEO: Steven Lawson – Catholic Convert from Agnosticism – The [...]

  32. The coming of the light | ThinkBannedThoughts Blog linked to this post on December 6, 2013

    [...] No, not the baby Jesus, he was born in the spring. [...]

  33. December 25 | Young Adults of Christ the King linked to this post on December 9, 2013

    [...] By Nancy Mitchell When was Jesus born? Not on December 25th. Probably sometime in the spring, with an unwed mother and some dirty shepherds (and an angel choir) to celebrate the balmy night of his birth. So why do we celebrate his nativity at the very end of the year? Pagans. That’s when the Romans used to celebrate the winter solstice. It was their holiday, the story goes, and we stole it. Cleverly, we appropriated it, and made it all about a little baby born in a barn. Centuries before his birth, throughout the Roman world the end of December marked the celebration of ‘the waxing of the light.’* Living as we do in an age of electric lighting, I don’t think we truly understand darkness. I remember the first time I went camping. I was 14. I didn’t realize it was possible for it to be that dark. I literally could not see my hand in front of my face. The tenuous light of a flashlight, the faraway light of the stars: I had never known I could be so grateful for these little things. The pagans understood darkness. They lived with darkness. On the winter solstice they celebrated the longest night of the year. It was an article of faith to them that the light would come again. They had not been forgotten. It would not be this dark ever again. I don’t think we understand darkness. Our world is full of injustice, and we are far more complacent than we ought to be. Sometimes I hate to read the news, because there are so many bad things happening and it seems so hopeless. It would be easier not to think about it at all. But there is no reason to be afraid. We can face the darkness and still rejoice, because we know that the night is already over. The true light that gives light to all men has come into the world.** On the night that he was born, the darkness began to abate. Peace on earth, said the angels, and goodwill towards men. It would never be this dark, ever again. The pagans understood darkness. They knew what it mean to wait, in darkness, for a long, long time. They loved the light, and they celebrated its return. How appropriate, then, for us to celebrate his birth at the darkest time of the year. Our light has come. *Two Roman winter solstice festivals were Brumalia and Saturnalia. The festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, or the birthday of the sun god, was celebrated in Rome on December 25, but it is unclear whether this festival predated Christmas or not. **This is John 1:9. ***Some scholars reject entirely the idea that the December 25th date was chosen for its coincidence with the Winter Solstice (or with the birthday of the sun god) and instead maintain that December 25th was chosen because it was nine months distant from March 25, celebrated as the day of the Annunciation. More on that here and here. [...]

  34. How December 25 Became Christmas | De Civitate Dei linked to this post on December 10, 2013

    [...] Read on here for more… Share this:Digg Pin ItShare on TumblrEmailPrintLike this:Like Loading… [...]

  35. A Blended Christmas Story | Simplicity Redesigned linked to this post on December 12, 2013

    [...] Bible History Daily [...]

  36. Why Christmas in December? | Writings of Branko's Blog linked to this post on December 13, 2013

    [...] from Andrew McGowan. It is quite inspiring and has a lot of interesting facts from the past: http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-topics/new-testament/how-december-25-became-christ… Share this:FacebookEmailTwitterPrintGoogleLinkedInLike this:Like [...]

  37. Reblog: How December 25 Became Christmas | Everywhere Present Filling All Things linked to this post on December 15, 2013

    [...] related in apocryphal writings such as the Infancy Gospel of Thomas and the Proto-Gospel of James.b These texts provide everything from the names of Jesus’ grandparents to the details of his [...]

  38. Why is Christmas on December 25? | Praedicare linked to this post on December 15, 2013

    [...] refer to this link.  I thank Biblical Archeology for this [...]

  39. Christmas Wars: Then and Now | Veracity linked to this post on December 17, 2013

    [...] Much of this post was adapted from the resources I link to above, but by far the most informative article I found was from BiblicalArchaeology.org, by Andrew McGowan, President …. [...]

  40. Julekildene | Bjørn Are Davidsens blogg linked to this post on December 18, 2013

    [...] den romerske delen har Andrew McGowan en bra gjennomgang i How December 25 became Christmas der han oppsummerer diskusjonen i lys av [...]

  41. Some of my Favorite Christmas Characters: Mary and Nicholas | Creation Science 4 Kids linked to this post on December 18, 2013

    [...] Biblical Archaeology: Why Dec 25th? [...]

  42. Onko joulu sittenkin alunperin kristillinen juhla? linked to this post on December 18, 2013

    [...] Andrew McGowan: How December 25 became Christmas? Bible History Daily, vierailtu 18.12. [...]

  43. Noah's Ark Has Been Found. Why Are They Keeping Us In The Dark? December 13, 2013 - Page 6 linked to this post on December 24, 2013

    [...] indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time.1 As far as we can tell, Christmas was not celebrated at all at this point. This stands in sharp [...]

  44. Merry Christmas 2013 | Mr. Cool linked to this post on December 24, 2013

    [...] did some online research and found some interesting article. Rate this:Like this:Like [...]

  45. December 25 Feast of the Day – The Nativity of Our Lord, God, and Savior Jesus Christ | The Onion Dome linked to this post on December 25, 2013

    [...] December 25 (Chronicon Blog) Sol Invictus evidently not a precursor to Christmas (Chronicon Blog) How December 25 Became Christmas (Bible History Daily) Sol Invictus (Wikipedia) Icon from stjohnmemphis.com (Public domain according to this rule). The [...]

  46. How December 25 Became Christmas | Taylor Halverson linked to this post on December 25, 2013

    [...] An insightful article on Biblical Archaeology about the dating of Christmas and other Christian holi…  Some argue that Jesus was conceived on April 6, born on January 6, and crucified on April 6.  Cyclical views of time where significant events fall on certain, specific, special days (perhaps borrowing from Judaism) may be more informative to the development of these dating traditions rather than linear notions of time, which are quite western. [...]

  47. I am a Muslim that Celebrates Christmas – And You Should Too | Pakistanis for Peace linked to this post on December 26, 2013

    [...] of the pagan god Mithra (also referred to as the sun) which was the pagan god of light. With Constantine accepting Hazrat Isa as the Messiah (meaning saviour) he declared that Hazrat Isa was the true [...]

  48. The holiday in disguise | Nova Safo linked to this post on December 26, 2013

    [...] And, of course, we know through lots of scholarly research that December 25 is almost certainly not the actual date of Jesus’ birth. Sure, we may spend a few hours in church. Personally, I love midnight mass on Christmas Eve, [...]

  49. Get It Right and Prepare For The Coming of The Lord | christisourvictory linked to this post on December 27, 2013

    [...] Maybe. The standard story is that December 25 was adopted after Constantine’s conversion to Christianity because it was on a pagan holiday and the winter solstice. Christians then co-opted the holiday and Christianized it. What’s interesting is that the early church put almost no emphasis on celebrating the birth of Christ. They were much more concerned with the resurrection. It’s not until AD 200 where possible dates are mentioned for the celebrating of Christ’s birth. By about AD 300 there were two dates: December 25 (for the west) and January 6 (for the east). There does seem to be a tradition of December 25 long before Constantine’s conversion, so that’s why I say maybe. This article from the Biblical Archaeology Review gives a good summary of “How December 25 Became Christmas.” http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-topics/new-testament/how-december-25-became-christ… [...]

  50. How December 25th Became Christmas | D's Blog linked to this post on December 27, 2013

    [...] indication that Jesus’ birth was not marked with similar festivities at that place and time.1As far as we can tell, Christmas was not celebrated at all at this [...]

  51. the Jesus Event | End of Year Happenings linked to this post on December 27, 2013

    [...] I wanted to share with you an excellent article from the Biblical Archaeological Review. You can check out the article over HERE. Spoiler alert- Jesus was probably, most definitely, not born on December 25. Find out [...]

  52. un-christmas | Find Your Niche linked to this post on December 28, 2013

    [...] Christmas-on-the-day is a farce anyway. Most scholars agree that historical Jesus wasn’t born anywhere near December 25. Mistletoe and the Yule log come straight from my ancestors, the pagan Norsemen. And the whole gift [...]

  53. The fetus is a parasite, abortion is like plucking out a hair: how much does Jerry Coyne really know about biology? | Uncommon Descent linked to this post on December 29, 2013

    [...] in pursuing the matter further, I would strongly recommend Andrew McGowan’s article, How December 25 became Christmas (Biblical Archaeology Society, December 7, [...]

  54. Ann Coulter Thinks Kwanzaa Isn’t a Holiday, but It’s No Less Real Than Christmas | Radio Free linked to this post on December 31, 2013

    [...] around the existing Winter Solstice as a means to convert pagans to Christianity. December 25 might not even be Jesus’s birthday. These dates were just useful to the early Christians. There’s also that whole thing about [...]

  55. Ann Coulter Thinks Kwanzaa Isn’t a Holiday, but It’s No Less Real Than Christmas « INTLFACES linked to this post on December 31, 2013

    [...] around the existing Winter Solstice as a means to convert pagans to Christianity. December 25 might not even be Jesus's birthday. These dates were just useful to the early Christians. There's also that whole thing about [...]

  56. Ann Coulter Thinks Kwanzaa Isn't a Holiday, but It's No Less Real Than Christmas - | Bharat Press linked to this post on December 31, 2013

    [...] Solstice as a means to convert pagans to Christianity. December 25 might not even be Jesus's birthday. These dates were just helpful [...]

  57. Ann Coulter Thinks Kwanzaa Isn’t a Holiday, but It’s No Less Real Than Christmas | Obsession Systems | Arash Dibazar Pick Up Artist · Psychology · Dating · Hypnosis · Lifestyle · Entertainment | Arash Dibazar PUA Mind Control · Voodoo Hy linked to this post on December 31, 2013

    [...] around the existing Winter Solstice as a means to convert pagans to Christianity. December 25 might not even be Jesus’s birthday. These dates were just useful to the early Christians. There’s also that whole thing about [...]

  58. Ann Coulter Thinks Kwanzaa Isn't a Holiday, but It's No Less Real Than Christmas - Right Kind of Revolution linked to this post on January 1, 2014

    [...] around the existing Winter Solstice as a means to convert pagans to Christianity . December 25 might not even be Jesus's birthday . These dates were just useful to the early Christians. There's also that whole thing about [...]

  59. Why is Christmas in the winter? Not the reason you thought, says New Testament scholar | Freethinking Jew linked to this post on January 4, 2014

    [...] this interesting article (here) in Biblical Archaeology Review, New Testament scholar Andrew McGowan goes through the sources and [...]

  60. Is January 6th The Real Christmas? - Cracked History linked to this post on January 6, 2014

    [...] main source for this entry on Cracked History was the online article available here, but additional information on Christmas in general, particularly the holiday’s evolution and [...]

  61. IN CHRISTMAS, whom we celebrate..., to Santa Calus, Harry Potter, or Jesus? - Page 6 - Religious Education Forum linked to this post on January 12, 2014

    [...] but since I don't have it with me, I can't directly quote. Instead I'd offer the following; How December 25 Became Christmas – Biblical Archaeology Society This doesn't actually support the pagan festival theory, and like I said, I'm trying to be [...]

  62. How Did December 25 Become Christmas? | Wascana Fellowship linked to this post on January 13, 2014

    [...] As it turns out, I may have been wrong about a pagan connection with the choosing of the date of December 25. It would seem that the church settled on that date due to some interesting, and probably Jewish-inspired, mental gymnastics. The details can be found in an article written for the Biblical Archaeological Society titled “How December 25 Became Christmas.” [...]

  63. Roman Emperor Constantine - Page 2 - Christian Chat Rooms & Forums linked to this post on January 21, 2014

    [...] on birth dates for the Patriarchs, particularly Isaac. All of what I've described is written about in more detail here, complete with a bibliography consisting mostly of primary writings from the people I mentioned. At the end of the day, I think [...]

  64. Who Needs Christ During Christmas? | Lost Little Lutheran linked to this post on February 8, 2014

    [...] December 25th. Actually, nobody knows what his truth birthday is. If you want to do some digging, here’s a good website that might help you along. In short, theologians struggled to figure out the exact date, and [...]

  65. Snow Day to the Future | We Write Together! linked to this post on March 18, 2014

    […] This has been accepted as fact. So, if Christ was actually born, when was he born? BiblicalArchaeology.org notes: “According to Clement of Alexandria, several different days had been proposed by various […]

  66. Ann Coulter Thinks Kwanzaa Isn’t a Holiday, but It’s No Less Real Than Christmas | Kinkementary Adult Personals-KinkementaryAdult Personals-Find a Sex Partner Free, Sex Personals Online, CasualEncounters, Adult Personals Online Sex Dating site linked to this post on March 25, 2014

    […] around the existing Winter Solstice as a means to convert pagans to Christianity. December 25 might not even be Jesus’s birthday. These dates were just useful to the early Christians. There’s also that whole thing about […]

  67. Who Needs Christ During Christmas? | Lost Little Lutheran linked to this post on May 5, 2014

    […] December 25th. Actually, nobody knows what his truth birthday is. If you want to do some digging, here’s a good website that might help you along. In short, theologians struggled to figure out the exact date, and […]

  68. Quora linked to this post on May 10, 2014

    What are the historical dates of the birth and death of Jesus Christ?

    WELL NUTS!!! MY MOBILE WONT LET ME EDIT AT THIS TIME SO TILL I CAN EDIT MG QUESTION I POST IT HERE…enjoy!!! ¢0: [EDIT] AS THE QUESTION GOT EXSPANDED ON, BUT HASN’T ALL THIS BEEN ASKED AND ANSWERED??? There us no clear date…I will give you speculat…

  69. De la Conception à la Résurrection - Pneumatis linked to this post on June 4, 2014

    […] McGowan, How December 25 became Christmas, […]

  70. Constantine and Christianity - Page 12 - Religious Education Forum linked to this post on June 15, 2014

    […] Can someone own a date? And I am not arguing that those dates were used to celebrate Pagan festivals. Quite the opposite actually, that those dates were chosen to celebrate Christian events in place of those Pagan festivals. I don't even know if Santa would be considered "pagan", but I would say that the Christmas tree could definitely be argued as a pagan tradition incorporated into the celebration of Christ's birth. How December 25 Became Christmas – Biblical Archaeology Society […]

  71. Idées reçues: Ces choses que l'on croit vrai. linked to this post on June 25, 2014

    […] FAUX, il n’existe aucune preuve de cette affirmation. La Bible ne fait jamais référence au fait que Jésus soit né un 25 décembre ; elle indiquerait plutôt une date proche de septembre, voire du printemps selon certaines interprétations. La date du 25 décembre est attribuée au pape Jules Ier, en l’an 350 il déclara le 25 décembre date officielle de la célébration. Cette date a pu être choisie pour correspondre au jour situé exactement 9 mois après l’Annonciation, au solstice d’hiver du calendrier romain, ou encore coïncider avec d’anciens festivals hivernaux. Source […]

  72. İsa Hangi Tarihte Doğdu? | Viktor Kopuşçu linked to this post on August 14, 2014

    […] McGowan, Andrew. “How December 25 Became Christmas.” 20/12/2013. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-topics/new-testament/how-december-25-became-christ… […]

  73. Onko joulu sittenkin alunperin kristillinen juhla? - Areiopagi linked to this post on September 3, 2014

    […] Andrew McGowan: How December 25 became Christmas? Bible History Daily, vierailtu 18.12. […]

  74. How Far Is Too Far Christian Dating | Christian Dating linked to this post on September 20, 2014

    […] How December 25 Became Christmas – Biblical Archaeology … – Easter, a much earlier development than Christmas, was simply the gradual Christian reinterpretation of Passover in terms of Jesus’ Passion…. […]

  75. Born Again Christian Dating Site Free | Dating Around Me linked to this post on September 23, 2014

    […] How December 25 Became Christmas – Biblical … – Easter, a much earlier development than Christmas, was simply the gradual Christian reinterpretation of Passover in terms of Jesus’ Passion…. […]

  76. Born Again Christian Dating Ireland | Dating Around Me linked to this post on September 25, 2014

    […] How December 25 Became Christmas – Biblical Archaeology … – Easter, a much earlier development than Christmas, was simply the gradual Christian reinterpretation of Passover in terms of Jesus’ Passion…. […]

  77. The Four Horsemen of The Holiday Marketing Apocalypse | Phaze 2 linked to this post on November 3, 2014

    […] DEFINITELY forget the pagan origins of Christmas and how the holiday should really be celebrated sometime around August*.  Christmas is here and you mothatruckers better be ready for Santa.  To make sure we are, cable […]

  78. Links of Interest (11.8.2014) | Dr. Matthew R. Perry, Pastor linked to this post on November 8, 2014

    […] How December 25 Became Christmas (Biblical Archaeology) […]

  79. Apie kaledu atsiradima | Dalinames Rasto Tiesa linked to this post on November 13, 2014

    […] Kiss http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/…/how-december-25…/ November 11 at […]

  80. Know Palawan's Christmas Traditions- Seacologia Travel | Palawan Resorts Hotels linked to this post on November 17, 2014

    […] pen down your secret Christmas wish list. This contains not just the things you desire to have this December 25, but also things you want to experience and places you want to visit before the year ends. You may […]

  81. – Where Was Jesus Born? linked to this post on November 17, 2014

    […] How December 25 Became Christmas […]


Some HTML is OK

or, reply to this post via trackback.


Enter Your Log In Credentials

Change Password

×