Errors in the Masoretes’ “Original” Hebrew Manuscripts of the Bible?

Why critical editions of the Bible—like Biblia Hebraica Quinta—are essential

This Bible History Daily feature was originally published in 2013.—Ed.


A MASTERPIECE OF THE MASORETES. The Masoretes established an astoundingly accurate tradition of Bible transmission. This carpet page from the Leningrad Codex (1008 C.E.)—of the tradition of the Masoretes—is the base text for Biblia Hebraica Quinta. The scribe of the manuscript Samuel son of Jacob, one of the Masoretes, even records his name. Photo by Bruce and Kenneth Zuckerman, West Semitic Research/With the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center/Courtesy Russian National Library.

The Hebrew Bible—or Old Testament—that we have today differs from the Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible penned in the first millennium B.C.E. When transmitting any sort of a document from generation to generation, small alterations—some intentional, others not—are made. Even the most careful scribe makes errors, which are perpetuated and often compounded by future scribes. Thus, it should not surprise us that the Hebrew Bible, which has a transmission history of several millennia, contains textual difficulties, corruptions and even mistakes. Critical editions of the Bible examine these differences by looking at varying Hebrew witnesses and try to accurately reconstruct the original Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible. In the November/December 2013 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, David Marcus and James A. Sanders discuss why critical editions of the Bible are necessary and describe the work that goes into creating such an edition in the article “What’s Critical About a Critical Edition of the Bible?”

Marcus and Sanders are both involved with the publication of Biblia Hebraica Quinta, the latest revision of Biblia Hebraica, which refers to the series of critical Bible editions published in Germany since 1905. The base for Biblia Hebraica Quinta is the Leningrad Codex, which dates to 1008 C.E. and was written by Samuel son of Jacob, who was part of a group of rabbinic scribes called the Masoretes.

The free eBook The Holy Bible: A Buyer’s Guide guides you through 33 different Bible versions and addresses their content, text, style and religious orientation. Updated Fall 2013 with brand-new reviews on six new Bible versions by Leonard J. Greenspoon.


THE MASORETES DOING WHAT THE MASORETES DO BEST. This page comes from the Aleppo Codex. Until a third of it was burned in a 1947 anti-Jewish uprising in Syria, the Aleppo Codex was considered to be the oldest, most complete, and most accurate of the Masoretes’ manuscripts. The Masoretes filled its margins with notes to safeguard against corruption. Credit: David Harris/Ben-Zvi Institute in the Shrine of the Book.

Working in Tiberias during the Middle Ages, the Masoretes recognized the possibility of human error when copying the Hebrew Bible. They tried to combat it by adding supplements to the text. In the margins of the Masoretes’ manuscripts, there are innumerable notes—masorah—to safeguard the text. The precision with which the Masoretes were able to preserve the Hebrew text beginning in the seventh century C.E. is astounding. Nevertheless, the Masoretes were not working with the original Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible. Corruptions had already crept into the versions they copied.

The Masoretes’ efforts preserved the Biblical text in the first millennium C.E. Modern scholarship, with critical editions of the Bible like Biblia Hebraica Quinta, is bringing us even closer to reconstructing the original Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible.


BAS Library Members: Read the full article “What’s Critical About a Critical Edition of the Bible?” by David Marcus and James A. Sanders as it appears in the November/December 2013 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.

Not a BAS Library member yet? Sign up today.

This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on October 25, 2013.


Learn more about critical editions of the Bible and Hebrew manuscripts in the BAS Library:

James A. Sanders, “ReViews: The Art and Science of Textual Criticism,” BAR, May/June 2012.

Yosef Ofer, “The Shattered Crown: The Aleppo Codex Sixty Years After the Riots,” BAR, September/October 2008.

Marc Brettler, “The Masoretes at Work: A Tradition Preserved,” sidebar to James A. Sanders and Astrid Beck, “The Leningrad Codex: Rediscovering the Oldest Complete Hebrew Bible,” Bible Review, August 1997.

Learn about the Hebrew Bible in a free course of 25 video lectures by Harvard professor Shaye Cohen. Take the course >>


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  1. ROBERT says

    The public doesn’t seem to care about the content of the Bible, they care about the cover and what version their pastor reccomends. I read that there have been more changes in the New Testament than there are letters in the Old Testament. Most are minor . Maybe that’s why we have over 5000 protestant denominations in America.

  2. dr howard says
    I think God is powerful enough to ultimately guard His word so that the correct Mss.will reflect His plan and will.

    We have more proof for the New Testament with over 15,00 mss.than any other ancient writings!!!

  3. Kurt says

    The Divine Name in the Hebrew Scriptures
    Heb., יהוה (YHWH)
    “Jehovah” (Heb., יהוה, YHWH), God’s personal name, first occurs in Ge 2:4. The divine name is a verb, the causative form, the imperfect state, of the Hebrew verb הוה (ha·wah′, “to become”). Therefore, the divine name means “He Causes to Become.” This reveals Jehovah as the One who, with progressive action, causes himself to become the Fulfiller of promises, the One who always brings his purposes to realization. See Ge 2:4 ftn, “Jehovah”; App 3C. Compare Ex 3:14 ftn.
    The greatest indignity that modern translators render to the Divine Author of the Holy Scriptures is the removal or the concealing of his peculiar personal name. Actually his name occurs in the Hebrew text 6,828 times as יהוה (YHWH or JHVH), generally referred to as the Tetragrammaton (literally meaning “having four letters”). By using the name “Jehovah,” we have held closely to the original-language texts and have not followed the practice of substituting titles such as “Lord,” “the Lord,” “Adonai” or “God” for the divine name, the Tetragrammaton.
    Today, apart from a few fragments of the early Greek Septuagint where the sacred name is preserved in Hebrew, only the Hebrew text has retained this most important name in its original form of four letters, יהוה (YHWH), the exact pronunciation of which has not been preserved. Current circulating texts of the Greek Septuagint (LXX), Syriac Peshitta (Sy) and Latin Vulgate (Vg) substitute the mere title “Lord” for God’s unique name.—See App 1C.
    The text located in the U.S.S.R., namely, the Codex Leningrad B 19A, used for Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS), vowel-points the Tetragrammaton to read Yehwah′, Yehwih′ and a number of times Yeho·wah′, as in Ge 3:14. The edition of the Hebrew text by Ginsburg (Gins.) vowel-points YHWH to read Yeho·wah′. While many translators favor the pronunciation “Yahweh,” the New World Translation continues to use the form “Jehovah” because of people’s familiarity with it for centuries. Moreover, it preserves, equally with other forms, the four letters of the divine name, YHWH or JHVH.—See ad under “Jehovah.”
    The practice of substituting titles for the divine name that developed among the Jews was applied in later copies of the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, and many other translations, ancient and modern. Therefore, A Greek-English Lexicon, by Liddell and Scott (LS), p. 1013, states: “ὁ Κύριος,=Hebr. Yahweh, LXX Ge. 11.5, al.” Also, the Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, by E. A. Sophocles, Cambridge, U.S.A., and Leipzig, 1914, p. 699, says under κύριος (Ky′ri·os): “Lord, the representative of יהוה. Sept. passim [scattered throughout].” Moreover, Dictionnaire de la Bible, by F. Vigouroux, Paris, 1926, col. 223, says that “the Septuagint and the Vulgate contain Κύριος and Dominus, ‘Lord,’ where the original contains Jehovah.” Regarding the divine name, A Compendious Syriac Dictionary, edited by J. Payne Smith, Oxford, 1979 reprint, p. 298, says that Mar·yaʼ “in the [Syriac] Peshita Version of the O. T. represents the Tetragrammaton.”
    Jehovah’s name was first restored to the English Bible by William Tyndale. In 1530 he published a translation of the first five books of the Bible into English. He included Jehovah’s name once, in Ex 6:3. In a note in this edition Tyndale wrote: “Iehovah is God’s name . . . Moreover, as oft as thou seist LORD in great letters (except there be any error in the printing) it is in Hebrew Iehovah.” From this the practice arose among translators to use Jehovah’s name in just a few places, but to write “LORD” or “GOD” in most places where the Tetragrammaton occurs in Hebrew. This practice was adopted by the translators of the King James Version in 1611, where Jehovah’s name occurs only four times, namely, in Ex 6:3; Ps 83:18; Isa 12:2; 26:4.
    Further, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Vol. 1, Chicago (1980), p. 13, says: “To avoid the risk of taking God’s name (YHWH) in vain, devout Jews began to substitute the word ʼǎdōnā(y) for the proper name itself. Although the MASORETES left the four original consonants in the text, they added the vowels ē (in place of ǎ for other reasons) and ā to remind the reader to pronounce ʼǎdōnā(y) regardless of the consonants. This feature occurs more than six thousand times in the Hebrew Bible. Most translations use all capital letters to make the title ‘LORD.’ Exceptions are the ASV [American Standard Version] and New World Translation which use ‘Jehovah,’ Amplified [Bible] which uses ‘Lord,’ and JB [The Jerusalem Bible] which uses ‘Yahweh.’ . . . In those places where ʼǎdōnā(y) yhwh occurs the latter word is pointed with the vowels from ʼēlōhim, and the English renderings such as ‘Lord GOD’ arose (e.g. Amos 7:1).”

  4. RH says

    Kurt’s reply is of interest but didn’t go far enough. The Hebrew language had been a dead language for 650 years by the time of the KJV in 1611. Only 2 of those knew some Hebrew, and that only a very little. It was not the thing at the time to consult Jewish scholars who would have known a bit more. Even then, it had not yet been discovered that the Hebrew letters “Y” and “W” were just that — not “J” and “V” as was thought at the time. The vowels were those of the Masoretes who were the most learned on such matters. So it is that in our time the JB translators commendably used YHWH rather than JHVH. The NWT should correct that error, as well as correct their designation as it is not a translation, seeing that none of the 5 who published it were versed in Hebrew, notably one who was found in a British court to be guilty of perjury when appearing as a witness who knew Hebrew but couldn’t satisfy the court in translating any Hebrew given or when asked to choose something on his own. “Version” would thus be more apt than “Translation”.

    On another translation matter: Would that every translation or version render all partially translated words of Hebrew or Greek into the English (or applicable) language; eg., “disciplos” not as “disciple” but as “student”. We have nothing to hide as in the KJV days when it was not customary or desirable to let believers know that women were allowed by Jesus to be among his students.

  5. Joy says

    I love His name! Period! I always loved the name Jehovah, but fell in love with Yahweh AS SOON AS I FIRST HEARD IT. I have always used the Letters YHWH and didn’t know much of anything other than they were the abbreviation for His name. I love ‘I AM’ I love HIM!

    Both of you RH and Kurt have great information! I am thankful for James Strong’s and I am not sure we will ever recover from all that’s been, “lost in translation”…but God did watch over His Word to the place that it does the work and those who choose to go on into a deeper understanding and study can do so. (I find it interesting and necessary and it enlarges my heart and mind!)

    I am so thankful for the final paragraph of RH though. I have been trying to explain to a lady on facebook that there was more ‘agenda’ concerning the KJV than translation ‘errors’ …and I love Jesus that he let’s ‘women’ be followers, students and declarers of His grace, doctrine and His love.

    Thanks guys!
    joy lynn williams
    crockett texas

  6. Joy says

    ps. touche Robert! didn’t read that at first, but yes. and Dr. Howard…He has watched over His word, but the problem is that what HAS BEEN DONE (most intentional!) has watered down the context, the power of the original words used in their original language and one of the most grievous crimes committed is using His Word to create a ‘Greek Christ’ instead of declaring, as Paul did, the Hebrew Messiah. For they are as far apart as the true truth and the true lie…
    pss. I love the Pashitta…Holy Bible translated from the Aramaic …it is really good and says things in so many places that is way better put and means so much more. Why wouldn’t it??? It’s the language Jesus spoke the most!
    Anyway…Love is the greatest of all, because God is love. Just so nice to see and know of people ‘reasoning together’ WHOO HOO

  7. Kurt says

    Born in Prison
    The short film “Born in Prison” was developed to explore the hidden name of the God of the Bible, YHWH (Yahweh), and the consequences of its concealment. I say hidden because it was systematically removed and replaced with “LORD” in most translations. The reasons are many, but tradition seems to be the main culprit. Many documentary style films exist that cover this topic, but “Born in Prison” is unique in its dramatic narrative approach. My hope is that “Born in Prison” will encourage people to think about the things they believe, why they believe them, and do some fact finding on their own.

  8. Krzysztof says

    Hej. Who and why started to use “Lord”? I can check it but if you know already
    Jesus from Nazarth is called Lord but never God (in NT).Sure, errors in copying will occur but the main idea/paradigm/ principle is unchanchable: there is a RELATION between human acts and future events

  9. Gary says

    I read somewhere the oldest version is YWH. That would change the pronunciation.

  10. Jimmy says

    It’s all bullshit people, and it’ bad for ya !

  11. Brian says

    I find it discomforting for people to pronounce my name incorrectly, and excuse such mistakes as coming from ignorance. I think the same about God who has to put up with those who don’t really know the correct pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, as Kurt reminds us, and God must wear the insult and excuse the ignorant with the excuse that perhaps they meant well. Far better, I think, to refer to God as Lord and avoid giving unnecessary offence. It’s nice to see the joy in Joy’s celebration of the name of God, but I don’t think God would get the same joy in a mispronunciation. And I don’t think Paul would get much joy in Joy missing out all those times Paul refers to Jesus as “Christ”.

  12. Gail says

    When baby’s first learn to say my name it sounds nothing like Gail but I know that in using my name they are refering to me, talking to me, calling to me because they recognise me, know me and mostly they love me.
    I believe the creator would feel the same way when people use his name mispronounced or not because it is an acknowledgement of recognition. He encourages us to walk with Him an be His friend afterall.
    So why would I constantly call you “Mr” or “guy” or “hey dude” instead of Brian? Do you have a desire to remain mysteriously aloof or anonymous?
    If our loving creator Jehovah who “causes to become” had the same desire to remain mysterious, aloof and anonymous why would He have bothered providing us with his word the Bible, which is essentially instructions on living a good life and a warning of what dangers may befall us and of those who willfully wish to harm and mislead us simply because they are jealous of the attention owing or due to the One, Only and true Sovereign and Creator of all things? Why would He send us a letter to let us know all of his plans and desires for us, and how he will cause His plans to become a reality?
    …..that would be the sound of my irritation at having my name mispronounced quietly fading into the background……yes the irrritation is fading ….shhhh…..what was that? Mmmmm thanks for that Brian, great conversation when we build one another up instead of all that negativity. Satan has enough negative current flowing through the world to make it seem like twilight instead of midday, almost, but not quite because I see you, I know you’re there, I know what you want because my Father warned me about you so I’m happily forewarned and forearmed and ready to meet the challenge with my Father holding my hand walking with me right by my side.

  13. phil says

    The bible simply says that that one aspect of God’s purpose for humanity is to have His name declared in all the earth, and that will be done regardless of linguistic barriers. Remember, He ” confused ” the languages of man at Babel , so evidently His name started being pronounced in many tongues early on, so that’s nothing new. Jehovah is just the most commonly understood version of the name, and if God’s purpose is for as many people as possible to come to understand His word and the fact He has a unique name, why not use it? Do you really think that a progressive God interested in the future outworking of His purposes is concerned over ” dead” languages or human scholars who insist that everyone MUST be able to speak these ancient tongues to understand the Bible?

  14. Bill says

    The letter killeth but the spirit giveth life!… Or should it be Spirit? 😉

  15. Timothy says

    There is no corroborated evidence that a third of the Aleppo Codex was burned in the uprising in Aleppo Syria in 1947 and no current forensic evidence that the two thirds remaining was ever exposed to extreme heat. The best unbiased investigation of this issue was done by Matti Friedman. His 2013 book “The Aleppo Codex” is certainly worth reading as it raises a number of serious questions regarding the several conflicting accounts of the “missing Torah section”. The first rule of good scholarship is not to repeat and perpetuate the assertions of poor scholarship.

  16. Amanda says

    Joh 21:25 And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. Amen.

  17. BHD says

    The Jerusalem Bible Project by scholars from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel, is one of the best editions of the Hebrew Bible (תנ״ך) with critical notes. Unfortunately, only a few books are available. It will be a few more decades before the whole canon of the HB is available in this amazing and great project. The current volumes are available at Magnes Press.
    חג שמח

  18. Manuel says

    Dear Folks, unfortunately, Codex Leningradensis like the ‘Aleppo Codex’… is in error!… this can be easily proven. There is a watermark in the Torah, which I have been working with over the past 17 years. The Torah text that was used by the Hebrew Publishing Co. of NY in 1917, the Living Torah by Aryeh Kaplan and The Koren House Publishing Torah text are all in accordance with Sifra di’Tzni-uta (the Book of Concealment contained in the Zohar (See Matt, Pritzker Edition of the Torah – vol 5. pg. 535.) The Editions of the other texts (above) do not produce the original watermark – “the Great White-Haired One, the Ancient of Days”… instead we find in the Codices and all derivatives a face – not human, but very animal-like. I am hoping people will awaken to this fact soon(!) things are getting serious in this world. – respectfully yours, Manuel Colunga-Hernandez

  19. Gregory says

    There is no historical evidence for the names Yahweh or Jehovah. They both are products of, German particularly, Protestant speculation. There are no copies of the Hebrew Scripture where in the vowels of the Tetragrammaton are ponted. Any pointing always turns it into Adonai, (Lord in English or Κύριος in Greek.
    Thie whole attempt to try and figure out God’s name reeks of Gnosticism.

  20. Karen says

    Well I believe that if the Set Apart Spirit – Yehuvah/Jehovah provided It’s Name one would think that we should address and reference the Set Apart Being by that Name out of respect and reverence. Maybe it’s time to take down ‘the fence’. On another note, I am sorely disturbed by the translations of the Scriptures we use in our modern Bibles. My thoughts and interests are specifically drawn to all of the information contained in the Scriptures that were inserted, removed/replaced, changed/corrected and relocated during the reign of Constantine and with each re-writing of the previous translation by scribes. Thank the Almighty Set Apart Spirit Yehuvah for the discernment needed to navigate the doctrines. Many clearly appear to me to reference a great amount of pagan old world lore, legends, rites and rituals that predate the time of of the Son of Man from Nazareth – Yehushua/Yeshua. We should consider and question what is said or portrayed to be spoken and taught by Him. Somewhere it is written,” In the last days many will run to and fro and knowledge will increase.” My hope is that BAR will continue to play a leading and important role in the dispensing of this knowledge through archeological discovery and through discussions like this one. The truth is out there. Now lets go find it!

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  22. Mike says

    How would figuring out Jehovah is the name of God in the Bible be a Gnostic idea? Gnosticism is a fusion of occult ideologies from various cultures across time. After doing a little research, anyone can conclude it’s all rooted in the early Babylonian worship of Nimrod and Semiramis – ancient opposers of the true God. Now, while it’s true Gnostics like to revamp and throw their own spin on Bible accounts, such as Noah’s flood, that has nothing to do with God making his name known. If anything, the attempt to conceal the name of Jehovah, replacing it with titles, or reducing it to the tetragrammaton, is something Gnostic believers would do. In the Bible, Jehovah is the creator of the universe and everything in it. Surely, a being of that level of power can easily have his name restored and make it known to all people, regardless of any human efforts to mar, remove, or conceal it.

  23. Deborah says

    The truth is Christian believers the world over have called our Lord by the name Jesus for almost 2000 years. He hears us when we call Him by that Name. He listens to us when we call Him by that Name. He answers our prayers when we call Him by that Name. The Christian masses over the centuries have not studied the Codex or probably ever heard of the Allepo Codex or even half of what has been said in these discussions. Still, they are saved by Him and follow Him. It does not take a scholar to receive the gift of salvation from the Lord Jesus Christ. Nor do we have to know some ancient name that only a select few may be privy to. All we need do is believe Who He is and Why He came to earth.

    I second what Dr. Howard stated: “I think God is powerful enough to ultimately guard His word so that the correct Mss. will reflect His plan and will.” I also second Phil who asked: “Do you really think that a progressive God interested in the future outworking of His purposes is concerned over ” dead” languages or human scholars who insist that everyone MUST be able to speak these ancient tongues to understand the Bible?

    Perhaps we do need these critical editions to ensure the accuracy of our Holy text. But, we also need to be careful with all this rummaging about that more inaccuracy is not creeping in. The fact is the King James Version of the Holy Bible remains at the top of the list for being accurate and reliable. It has been proven and tested over time. After the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, the ancient text of Isaiah and part of the Psalms was compared to the KJV text and only minor differences were found, differences that didn’t really alter the meaning of the passages. In contrast, it has been found that the newest version of the NIV has over 60,000 errors in it and quite a few of these errors do alter the meaning.

    Studying the Holy Bible, it is apparent that our Lord did not expect us to continue using His old name from ancient texts. Instead, He gave us a new name by which to call upon Him. In Revelation we read:

    “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.” (Rev 2:17)

    If we know our ancient text, we know that “stone” is representative of our Lord Jesus Christ. (See the prophetic stone regarding Nebuchadnezzar’s statue in Dan 2:34-35) and “the chief cornerstone” (Isa 28:16). See also Gen 49:24; Psa 118:22; Mat 21:42; Mar 12:10; Luk 20:17; Act 4:11; Eph 2:20; 1Pe 2:6-7).

    Then, we read further on in Revelation:

    “Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name.” (Rev 3:12)

    Here in both these passages of Revelation we are told that God will be given a “new name” for Christians – for believers to know him by. What do you think that name is? Don’t you think the Scriptures give us enough hints so that we can figure all this out for ourselves? Let’s look at Mark:

    “And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues…” (Mark 16:17)

    In what name have we been casting out devils and speaking in new tongues for 2000 years? It is in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth. (Please note I do not believe that Mark is referring to unknown tongues here in this passage. I believe he is simply talking about the different peoples of the world that will be evangelized, for this is the same chapter that the Lord gives us the Great Commission: “Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature” (Verse 15).

    Come on, people. When we hold the Bible, we hold in the palms of our hands all that we need “to study and to find ourselves approved” when we study a good authorized translation. God’s Word is right there in front of us, powerful and Spirit-filled. It is not necessary to revert to ancient foreign languages that we really don’t understand. It is okay for it to be a part of our study, and it doesn’t hurt to have the Strong Concordance, but we can get what we need from just the study of the Word in English. The Lord will provide.

    For the gentleman who says our Lord Jesus wasn’t called “God” in the New Testament, read Jude:
    Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called… Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy, To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen. (Jud 1, 24-25)
    Keep in mind, too, that Jesus referred to Himself as God when He said: “Before Abraham was, I am (Joh 8:28). Also see Joh 8:23; 10:11; 10:36.
    Open up your Bible and read it. Study it. If we seek Him, He will find us. Jesus is His name. You can also call Him Jehovah. Yahweh. Elohim. The Word. King. Immanuel. He is known by many names and many titles. In Isaiah, written 740 years before Jesus was born, we read:
    “For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this. The Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath lighted upon Israel.” (Isa 9:6-8)
    Who was this child who Isaiah also called “the mighty God, The everlasting Father”? He was God in the flesh come to earth to save us. There is only one name which He used when He came to earth and that name was “Jesus.” He was Jesus Christ of Nazareth, and His disciples also called Him “Lord,” so we can, too. The angel Gabriel directed Mary to call Him “Jesus” when He was borne (See Luk 1:27-35). Some say it was “Joshua,” but Jesus is the Name in my Bible, and Jesus is the Name that caught on, and Jesus is the Name that 3 billion followers have called Him for over 2000 years. Yes, our Lord Jesus Christ of Nazareth has many different names, but those of us privileged enough to sit at His feet call Him “Jesus,” and we know Who He is. He is Lord God Almighty and Creator of the Universe.

  24. JEI says

    What do you think of this blog, any comment?

  25. john says

    Check out 2 kings 15: to see why all extant codexes & bibles are mistranslations.
    Petah ,son of Remaliah was killed twice by Hoshea ,& still managed to rule 20 years over Israel after Hoshea killed him after he had killed Pekahiah!!!!!???????.
    Including the most important ‘book’ in the World —- Claims made for The a Codex Aleppo & The Codex Vaticanus etc etc .
    NONE of the ‘bibles’ or ‘codexes’ are ORIGINALS,but copies of copies or by UNAUTHORISED translators ,such as The Alexandrian Jewish Community members,Emperor Constantine ,The Samaritans etc etc.

  26. john says

    To clarify my story of PEKAH & HOSHEA ,’as Kings over Israel’ ,& the erroneous versions of the story in all Codexes & ‘bibles’,that I have been able to access…
    Their total of 29 years ‘rule over Israel was actually in GILEAD as attention to detail proves!.
    During PEKAH’s rule the Assyrian King Tiglath Pileser 3 deported many Israelites to Assyria & Media….His rule was 745 to. 727 BC.
    HOSHEA was the last King of Israel ,& his ‘rule’ was from729/8 to 720BC,albeit as A prisoner in GILEAD ,from 722 to 720 BC.,courtesy of his Assyrian Overlord ,Shalmaneser V,who then went up through the land & besieged Samaria 3 years & they took it & sent 30,000 survivors as POWs to captivity in Assyria & Media.
    THEY =ShalmaneserV & His brother/successor, Sharrukin/ Sargon2,
    There was NO King in Samaria 722 to 720 BC ,as HOSHEA had killed PEKAH ,immediately after PEKAH killed PEKAHIAH ,King of Samaria ,in order to ” Rule in his Room”…IN 722BC
    HOSHEA had previously conspired with Tiglath Pileser 3 to oust PEKAH from GILEAD so as he could replace him,& with PEKAH as King in Samaria,HOSHEA obviously felt threatened & took immediate action …PEKAH’s Reign in Samaria was so short that no Rule was recorded.The 20 years of 2Kings 15:30 refers to his ‘Rule’ in GILEAD….
    Only oblique references are made & very little to GILEAD .,while their ‘rule over Israe ‘ was referred to as being in Samaria …
    The FACTS are ,That HOSHEA Never ruled in Samaria,& PEKAH ‘began to rule’ = NIL / ZERO .,
    In Samaria.
    Whether the errors were intentional or simply made by copyists who had no clue to the reality is immaterial ,as with this knowledge the solving of the Chronology of the Kings of Israel & Judah is possible …..The Kingdom of Israel if called EPHRAIM & it is realised that there were TWO THRONES in ISRAEL. //. EPHRAIM from 749 BC ,for whatever reason…?.,As an adjunct to Samaria in PEKAH’s case & as an Assyrian Tributary in HOSHEA’s? .,Then the Cross References make perfect sense .
    W F Albright & E R Thiele apparently tried to solve the problem by using Pagan ‘calendars’ & an erroneous grasp of ‘conventional history’.Simple Arithmetic was not one of their strong points.

  27. john says

    On the 11th of September 2001 AKA “9/11″‘a “KARAITE JEW” ,named Nehemiah Gordon claimed to have discovered the NAME of THE GOD of ISRAEL to be ” YEHOVAH” ELOHIM,or “YEHOVAH” GOD ,,as revealed to Moses in Exodus 3:15. .
    Nehemiah was Proof Reading a New Bible Project of Hebrew University ,Jerusalem ,against the Highly revered ALEPPO CODEX using High Definition photographs of that Codex ,when he discovered a Masoretic Vowel Pointer ,indicating that the missing letter in the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton Y H V H wa the letter O,which meant that it was “YEHOVAH”. A phone call advised him that The Twin Towers had been ” HIT” .Returning to his search for more proof he found the same Vowel Pointer in another place ,verifying that it was not a fluke or error.Another phone call advised him of a second Hit on the Twin Towers..COINCIDENCES??????.
    Those vowel pointers etc are referred to as ” JOTS & TITTLES” by Nehemiah .
    Thus, NOT one Jot or Tittle shall be lost????,would seem to suggest that the Vowel Pointing etc was in use prior to YEHOSHUA’s time ?????.
    In Genesis 1: …..It was ELOHIM who was The CREATOR ,& that was who GOD was known as by “The FATHERS”…..It was only to Moses that THE NAME of The ELOHIM / GOD was revealed as being “YEHOVAH”.
    ELOHIM was a plural/ dual term of ELOH ,as in John1: ..Which clearly shows that TWO ELOH formed The ELOHIM.
    Only ONE of those TWO. ELOH was identified further by the term ” THE WORD”,who was the Executive partner of The CREATOR. / ELOHIM.
    In 2000. — 2001 Anno Mundi a RECONSTRUCT occurred ,,The Unidentified ELOH of John1: Became. EL /GOD The FATHER & ELOH THE WORD Voluntarily emptied of his immortality & miraculous powers was reduced to be implanted in the womb of the Jewish Maiden ,Mary Bint ELI ,in order to be “Born of a Woman” as YEHOSHUA of Nazareth as he became known .
    YEHOSHUA / Y’Shua ended up being transliterated as ‘Jesus of Nazareth’ & the whole story falsified ,due to mistranslations ,omissions, mispunctuations,spurious additions & misinterpretations since Apostolic Times

  28. John says

    Jesus was never called God only Lord?

    Check your Bible again folks. Thomas called Him “My Lord and my God!”

  29. john says

    Correction …In the previous ,it should be 4000AM or 1AD,when the reconstruct of “YEHOVAH ELOHIM” occurred…
    The unidentified “ELOH” of John 1: Became ” EL THE FATHER” ,while ” ELOH THE WORD”,Became YEHOSHUA /Y’Shua of Nazareth,& in 4030 AM / 30AD ,”YEHOSHUA Ha MESHIACH”,& on Wednesday 14thNisan 4034AM / 34AD was speared to death as he hung crucified ,aged 331/2 years .( Matthew 27:49) As per The Codex VATICANUS…..” But another seizing a lance speared Y’Shua in the side & water & blood came out” ….( The Water) Was Pericardial Fluid ,of which there was an inordinate amount ,due to the trauma of the Roman scourging & hanging crucified for 6 hours ,nailed to a Tree …The distended sac was sliced open by the lance /spear ,narrowly missing the heart,but piercing the aorta & thus death by exsanguination was assured….The intact heart would have continued to pump while ever blood contacted its chambers,totally evacuating the blood supply….The nail wounds in the extremities would have drained them.
    Those names were the ALTER EGOS of the TWO ELOH of John 1:……..Who were The “ELOHIM” , The ENTITY / DEITY / GOD ,referred to as THE CREATOR.
    Ergo,The Morning Stars / Cherubim & The Sons of God / Seraphim were creations of YEHOVAH ELOHIM ,as was Mankind….
    Whereas ,YEHOSHUA / Y’Shua ,was The Only Begotten Son Of EL THE FATHER……The ALTER EGOS of YEHOVAH ELOHIM.
    As of 4000AM /Anno Mundi.
    Ergo,………The One God ,was a misnomer or misinterpretation,by Deceivers or ignoramuses,due to the continual mistranslation of the Hebrew word “ELOHIM”.
    John 1: In the beginning ,was from eternity!!!!!!.
    Genesis 1: …Was about 14 Billion years BC,when the physical Universe was created & about 4 Billion years BC when Earth was created…by ELOHIM ….YEHOVAH /YAHOWEH ELOHIM.,depending on which version of the “Hebrew” language you support.

  30. יהושוע says

    Yahuah or yawah. Or whatever is derived from the TETRAGRAMMATON YHVH YHWH is not the name of the most high. If you actually looked up what that name means you would know it’s an imposter injected by imposters. Your bibles torahs and so on are corrupted. Jesus (יהושוע) speaks of this. Also speaks of fake jews. He offered the jews a spiritual kingdom and they wanted a worldy kingdom like still today. They rejected him. Jesus wasn’t Jewish.

  31. Si. says

    Deborah, is that a fact? As far as I was aware the King James Bible has as many mistakes as most other Bibles copied from other Bibles who copied from the Greek who copied from the Hebrew.
    There’s enough facts out there to say KJV was a political Bible, Fact even a very good BBC documentary about it.
    Perhaps you shouldn’t use the word fact when in fact it’s not a fact.

  32. Suzelle says

    Good day.In my searh for the true name of our Father I came upon a very disturbing accuzation.It is claimed that the name YHWH weather it is pronounced Yahweh/Yahovah/Yehovah,was changed from the original Hebrew Moses spoke,by the Jews(Edomites not Judians)during their time in Babilonia.They changed the holy name of our Father into Yah which is the name of the moongod,Babilonians and Egyptians served.The tetragrammaton appears on tarrotcards and in freemason shrines.YHWH is the name of the moongod.It is also beiing chanted by witshes,and demons answers….Al of our biblescolars and preachers were taught from the changed text which is the aramic hebrew.The strongs also is based on that wrong text.How much truth is in this? Can you please answer me?The one site I came upon who describes it best is look at any site Yah the moongod.

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