Should We Take Creation Stories in Genesis Literally?

Finding multiple truths in Biblical myths

This Bible History Daily feature was originally published in 2016.—Ed.


 
garden-of-eden-fall-of-man

What purpose did creation stories in Genesis serve? Were they Biblical myths? Pictured here is The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man (c. 1617) by Flemish painters Peter Paul Rubens and Jan Brueghel the Elder.

Were the creation stories in Genesis meant to be taken literally?

Maybe not, says Biblical scholar Shawna Dolansky in her Biblical Views column “The Multiple Truths of Myths” in the January/February 2016 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.

Our world is very different from the world in which the Biblical authors lived over 2,000 years ago. The ancient world did not have Google, Wikipedia and smartphones—access to information on human history and scientific achievements developed over millennia at the touch of their fingertips.

Many scholars believe that the ancient Israelites had creation stories that were told and retold; these stories eventually reached the Biblical authors, who wrote them down in Genesis and other books of the Bible. Creation stories in Genesis were etiological, Shawna Dolansky and other Biblical scholars argue.1 That is, the creation stories in Genesis served to provide answers to why the world was the way it was, such as why people wear clothes and why women experience pain during childbirth.
 


 
In the free eBook Exploring Genesis: The Bible’s Ancient Traditions in Context, discover the cultural contexts for many of Israel’s earliest traditions. Explore Mesopotamian creation myths, Joseph’s relationship with Egyptian temple practices and three different takes on the location of Ur of the Chaldees, the birthplace of Abraham.
 

 
Creation stories in Genesis were among the many myths that were told in the ancient Near East. Today we may think of myths as beliefs that are not true, but as a literary genre, myths “are stories that convey and reinforce aspects of a culture’s worldview: many truths,” writes Dolansky. So to call something a myth—in this sense—does not necessarily imply that it is not true.

Scholars argue that Biblical myths arose within the context of other ancient Near Eastern myths that sought to explain the creation of the world. Alongside Biblical myths were Mesopotamian myths in which, depending on the account, the creator was Enlil, Mami or Marduk. In ancient Egyptian mythology, the creator of the world was Atum in one creation story and Ptah in another.

shawna-dolansky

Shawna Dolansky

“Like other ancient peoples, the Israelites told multiple creation stories,” writes Shawna Dolansky in her Biblical Views column. “The Bible gives us three (and who knows how many others were recounted but not preserved?). Genesis 1 differs from Genesis 2–3, and both diverge from a third version alluded to elsewhere in the Bible, a myth of the primordial battle between God and the forces of chaos known as Leviathan (e.g., Psalm 74), Rahab (Psalm 89) or the dragon (Isaiah 27; 51). This battle that preceded creation has the Mesopotamian Enuma Elish as its closest analogue. In Enuma Elish, the god Marduk defeats the chaotic waters in the form of the dragon Tiamat and recycles her corpse to create the earth.”

In what other ways do Biblical myths parallel ancient Near Eastern myths? What can we learn about the world in which the ancient Israelites lived through the creation stories in Genesis? Learn more by reading the full Biblical Views column “The Multiple Truths of Myths” by Shawna Dolansky in the January/February 2016 issue of BAR.

——————

BAS Library Members: Read the full Biblical Views column “The Multiple Truths of Myths” by Shawna Dolansky in the January/February 2016 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.

Not a BAS Library member yet? Join the BAS Library today.
 


 
This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on January 31, 2016.
 

 

Notes:

1. For example, see Ziony Zevit, “Was Eve Made from Adam’s Rib—or His Baculum?” BAR, September/October 2015; Mary Joan Winn Leith, “ReViews: Restoring Nudity,” BAR, May/June 2014.
 


 

Related reading in Bible History Daily:

The Adam and Eve Story: Eve Came From Where?

The Creation of Woman in the Bible

How the Serpent Became Satan by Shawna Dolansky

Love Your Neighbor: Only Israelites or Everyone? by Richard Elliott Friedman
From the September/October 2014 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review

The Animals Went in Two by Two, According to Babylonian Ark Tablet
 


 

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  1. Joe says

    Dear BAR,

    I realize that this is not, strictly speaking, a forum for debate even though the published information often inspires it; However some reasoned conservative scholarship touching Biblical inerrancy would be a welcome breath of fresh air in the face of what seems like a featured majority of liberal and often skeptical positions.
    This is quite incongruous considering the Biblically affirming nature of much of the actual field work being done.
    I do very much appreciate the work of BAS.
    Thanks.

  2. Colin says

    Interesting. IF there is an omnipotent God of the Universe who reached down to man to offer salvation to all who would believe in His name, and IF that omnipotent God has the power to inspire humans to write only as God dictated to them, and IF God has the ability and desire to preserve his Word in written form down through the ages, then we can have confidence that the Biblical narrative is fact and not myth or fiction. A person’s worldview will color their interpretation of the Bible, and if any of the Bible is false, we can question the authenticity and accuracy of all Biblical narratives, not just Genesis. That includes Christs divinity, purpose on earth, and atoning work on the cross. As a research engineer, I’ve gone through the questions in the Bible, secular literature, and my mind for the last 40 + years, and am convinced that we can rely on the Bible 100%. No myth here. I admit, it’s weird from a human perspective to “Look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen, for the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal”, but worldly research and experience doesn’t definitively negate a reality that we cannot yet perceive.

  3. Mike says

    For Colin: “Myth” doesn’t mean fiction when applied to ancient Near Eastern culture. It refers to stories meant to convey a truth.

  4. Geoffrey says

    I agree completely. I was thinking exactly the same thing as I read it. I love BAR and often use what I learn from it to privide evidence to my students of the Bibles authenticity. So Im always disappointed in these types of articles. Its what I call a “shoot yourself in the foot” article. Its like me going door to door selling, providing proof that I am offering the best vacuum cleaner in the world and at the same time leaving a list of potential problems that might show up. If the Bible really is the Wiord of God it must be at the very least trustworthy. Nowhere do the Scriotures suggest that the creation account is anything but literal. GEN 1:27; PS 139:14; MATT 19:4-6; AC 17:24, 25. Just to mention a few. Kind regards.

  5. Eutychus says

    I wish I had time to write a more thorough comment on this; not on the article so much as the comments in response to it. Christian practitioners need not be alarmed or afraid of the word or concept of ‘myth.’ I’m reminded of Inigo Montoya in Princess Bride: “You keep using that word. I do not think it means what you think it means.”

    If the only way you can understand the Bible to be authoritative for Christianity is to declare in faith that it must be all history and no mythology, then you’ve missed so much of its meaning and importance that you might as well hang up your boxing gloves. Truth is not fact. The distortion of Biblicism is that it denigrates the idea of myth rather than revering it. The question of whether it’s historical or factual in an empirical sense is a red herring: the authority of the Bible for Christianity lies in discerning its truth, not its fact, and if you can’t embrace the distinction between them, you’ve reduced the sacred text to a list of propositions, and exchanged a relationship with a living and loving God for a laundry list of doctrinal assumptions to be checked off via intellectual assent. That, in turn, leads to a kind of “works righteousness” in which your assent to the laundry list is what make you acceptable to God rather than God’s work of grace toward those (we) who deserve none.

    Don’t be afraid of real scholarship; embrace the possibility that the Bible can be authoritative in the lives of Christian practitioners even if they don’t perceive it as literally and scientifically descriptive.

  6. Michael says

    Chapter 2 of Genesis is not a second creation story, it is an expansion on day six. The use of the term “of the field” signifies cultivated crops not plant life in general but what was provided specifically for mankind.

  7. Robert says

    Colin said: “…and IF that omnipotent God has the power to inspire humans to write only as God dictated… then we can have confidence that the Biblical narrative is fact and not myth or fiction.” Isn’t this a rather odd sort of thing to say? That if God were to write something, then what he would write would be the kind of thing a Thomas Gradgrind would aspire to; that it would not be poetry, or legend, or enigma; that it would not be fiction conveying meanings in many different settings as readers engage with it. That it would not reveal to late readers the mindset and outlook and understanding of the people among whom it originated. That it would not engage the imagination but only require the assent of its readers. Here is what you must know – learn it because you will be tested upon it on judgement day. :)

  8. Charles says

    For what it is worth, Judaism has always admitted non-literal interpretations of Biblical narratives, some of which directly contradict the plain meaning of the text. For example, no less a figure than Maimonides (12th century) explicitly denies the literal truth of the talking snake in the Guide to the Perplexed. Rashi (11th century) wrote in his commentary to the very first verse in Genesis that the book’s purpose is NOT to teach history and should NOT be taken literally. You simply do not get bigger figures in Judiasm than these. And of course Judaism never accepted the “original sin” doctrine nor the necessity of a mediator to ameliorate sin.

    With this understanding one can see why religious Jews such as myself are not concerned with most of the issues raised in this comment section.

  9. Dr says

    I completely disagree with almost everything the author, Shawna Dolansky, in the online article ‘Should We Take Creation Stories Literally?’ has to say. But, it is nothing new-“there is nothing new under the sun.” This same old debate rages back to the earliest of civilizations. Peter the Apostle warned against this in 2 Peter 2:5-7
    As well, Collin, in the comments section, makes good points about God’s ability to say what he means and preserve it. But I would like to add that I have studied the Noah Flood Account and it fits the concept of a True Narrative Account-that is an actual eye witness account. This is seen by the ancient words used in the text, a precise timeline, and the residual evidence for not only a local flood but an actual worldwide one time event. The observations of science: geology, biology, anthropology, and archaeology can be fit within a worldwide flood scenario . Historically, the Bible links the Flood with the judgment on Sodom-one worldwide and one local. Was the judgment on Sodom real? If one allogorizes it or the flood-does God really judge sin? Yet, it doesn’t stop there. The coming of Christ, in which every eye will see him: is that a legend, myth, fable or allogory? Will only those in the area of Jerusalem see Him? My understanding of the scriptures is that as God judged and distroyed all of mankind, except Noah and his family who had faith to obey Him; He will do the same at His, Jesus Christ’s, return to the earth during the end of times. Thus, both are portrayed as worldwide events in the Biblical scriptures.

    Do you interpet scripture by first looking at mans’s limited understanding of the physical earth, or do you first look at the scriptures and try to understand the limited observations of science within the all encompassing framework of the Biblical scriptures. As important, do you understand that science can only answer questions regarding the physical properties of earth and how to manipulate them for technology. When doing archaeology you and I are looking through a trash heap, so our evidence is often very limited and to what degree can we extrapolate it to understand the past. The Bible gives an accurate framework in which to understand the pyhsical evidence. Why would we, as Christians, want to manipulate it, the scriptures, to fit some limited transient, usually secular, ideas of mankind? Yet, I do not deny that Biblical archaeology has given us much information about the peoples of the ancient world, e.g. a Roman soldier’s uniform and the structures of buildings. But these observations do not change the framework of the scriptures. They color in the background.

    If you consider yourselves a Christian organization then I beg you to not compromise the integrity of God’s Holy Word, as many have.
    See what Jesus said:

    Luke 17:
    1 “Then said he unto the disciples, It is impossible but that offences will come: but woe unto him, through whom they come!….
    26 And as it was in the days of Noe, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man.
    27 They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all.
    28 Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded;
    29 But the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all.
    30 Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed.” KJV

  10. edward says

    if a bride claims to be a virgin, and can not prove it, should she be stoned? Ia an engaged woman is raped in the city limits, should meet the same punishment as her attacker, because she did not scream loud enough? according to the “innerrent word of God”, the answer to bout of these questions is yes..
    itf we allow the bible to be falible moarllay, how can we allow it to be infallible in tn the face of scientic discoveries

  11. George says

    The Genesis account is not allegorical nor a “summary” but a literal starting point for creation. The brevity of its actuality is all we need for our belief. There is no need to fear scholastic contrariness. However, it is always good to be accurate by reviewing the presuppositions going into the analysis of discovered artifacts. For example, Wescott and Hort gave us “textual criticism” with the purpose in mind for all Biblical students to (like them) approach the Bible as “literature” instead of “the Divine Word of God. In other words, it doesn’t matter what Christ said about the “Law and the Prophets” doubting God is a good thing.

  12. Paul says

    When 275 cultures report that there was a universal flood that was survived only by the occupants of a boat load of animals and a human family, then we are talking history, not mythology. Even what we all agree is mythology, like Greek and Roman mythology, we discover is only revisionist history where the good guys (Shem and his descendants) by other names are demonized, and the rebels (Ham, Cush, and Nimrod) by other names are lionized.

  13. David says

    There are lots of people speaking out against this article who insist that it is wrong because it doesn’t agree with their own sense of what must be true about creation. They insist that they have the CORRECT understanding, and this understanding is provided by the Holy Spirit. They would ALL say that “the Holy Spirit leads into all truth”, and they would insist this article is false. The problem with that view is that if you took all of the people who posted those kinds of replies here and gathered them in a room, it is virtually CERTAIN that NONE of them would agree on all the various points of Biblical doctrine. Ironically, though, each one would likely INSIST that they were correct because the Holy Spirit had guided them into all truth. That is a serious problem, because it means one of three radical things:
    1) the Holy Spirit is a liar, telling fibs to every new person it encounters
    2) the Holy Spirit is a deranged psychotic with multiple personalities
    3) ALL OF THESE PEOPLE ARE GRAVELY MISTAKEN ON TWO POINTS: (A) they don’t really know what ‘:Elohhiym actually means (i.e. they misunderstand and misinterpret) when He says “the Spirit leads into all truth”, & (B) they don’t really comprehend what YHWH is doing, nor how and why He is doing it.

    Only one of those can be correct, and it isn’t 1 or 2. If you reject 1 & 2, then 3 MUST BE TRUE. There are no other options, because the second you say 3 isn’t true, you are immediately back to insisting 1 or 2 is true. Guess what? BIBLE PROPHECY INSISTS THAT 3 IS TRUE. Every single person who posted to this thread is a victim of “the strong delusion” and “the famine of the hearing of the words of YHWH”. The Bible is CLEAR that many of those who are so deluded WILL THINK THEY HAVE A VALID AND CORRECT RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD. The fact that nearly everyone thinks that everyone else is a victim of delusion is PROOF that the strong delusion has already wrapped the world in a strangle hold. The Bible describes this condition in detail, and there isn’t much anyone can do but wait until He acts to remove the delusion. The upshot is this: your ability to (in your view) recognize error is others is NOT proof that you know truth. There are thousands upon thousands of “Spirit-led believers” who believe they have been shown a truth that you think is a lie. They say YOU are the liar. The REAL truth is that ALL OF YOU ARE DECEIVED, and you will stay that way until YHWH reaches the point in His plan when He removes the fog of deception that HE allowed the dragon to implement to “deceive the whole world”. I promise…you AREN’T the exception to that Bible truth.

    In such a circumstance, self-righteous pontificating about others’ errors is highly dangerous. Call me a hypocrite for saying so if you are so “led”.

  14. Robert says

    I have thoroughly enjoyed reading Ms. Dolansky’s article and the comments. I think that this form of discussion and debate is most needed in the faith communities of the world today. Let me ad a single thought to the many well thought out answers already given.
    The biggest problem with failing to take the creation story literally is that you have just destroyed Jesus Christ as the redeeming Savior of mankind. From an OT view- if Genesis is false, then death and disease and violence can predate man by millions or billions of years. If that is true as many in science claim- then man’s sin did not cause death to enter the world. If that is true- then Christ’s sacrifice can not redeem us, because we were not the cause. From a NT perspective- if Adam and Eve and the rest of the Genesis story is fake- then Christ is not perfect (since He claimed that it was true)- thus destroying His perfection and voiding His acceptable sacrifice. Other than that, I think it is an interesting article.
    Blessings on your Journey through His word.
    Pastor Robert

  15. george says

    I would not read that “book” if I were paid to do so! This is a glaring example of why people are getting farther from THE only true God. Such hogwash comes only from non-believers; and the Bible well mentions that kind of people, and how they will proliferate in the latter days. So we have apparently have arrived at that tome.

  16. Paul says

    I find both the article and the responses interesting. Historically within the Christian Church there have always been two schools of interpretation of the first six chapters of Genesis-the Antiochian School which was more literalist, and the Alexandrian school which took a more allegorical view. Today we see the rise of the Antiochian school in the understanding of many Christians, but the allegorical view of the Alexandrians irons out many difficulties a literalist point of view creates (no pun intended). Psalm 103 (LXX)/104 (Masoretic) is a Psalm of Creation of which Alexander Schmemann says that in that hymn the Church takes us back to “that first evening on which man…opened his eyes and saw what God is His love was giving to him” And in many ways this could set the standard for all interpretations of the various Creation Accounts which are found in Holy Scripture. Interestingly, the atheist scientist and astronomer Fred Hoyle rejected The Big Bang Theory because, he said, it implied the existence of God. Today very few atheists would deny the Big Bang Theory. Plato taught that God is the source of all things. These are all in line with Holy Scripture which says the “in the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth”. The fact is that God is the First Cause, the mechanics He used are in many ways are irrelevant

  17. Derek says

    You do realise that if the creation is just a myth, then it makes the Christian faith a complete lie? With articles like this we can understand the decline in the Christian faith, simply because with evolution we are exactly what God intended us to be, so why do we need a Saviour? We would not. It is so sad when what we consider to be Christian organisations come up with this sort of anti-scriptural junk.
    In reality, the creation account fits very well the science that we know about the formation of the universe. There is also many scientific points contained in the Bible that your “world in which the Biblical authors lived over 2,000 years ago.” could not possibly have known. If only your writers would read the Bible and understand what the Bible is all about, we would be a lot better off.

  18. rmpearlman says

    Yes, it is the reliable testimony needed in order to understand science in context.
    reference RCCF (The Recent Complex creation Framework) – for how to understand the science in max. available context.

  19. Wes says

    Thanks for the post, Paul.
    Hoyle was an enjoyable, provocative writer of both fiction and fact.
    As a scientist, sometimes he was right, sometimes not.
    But as a clever advocate for an alternative to an existing theory, he was worth listening to.
    As many know, some of the early contributors to the Big Bang theory of
    cosmology were religious people, most notably Father Georges. Lemaitre.
    Perhaps you could call his contribution Biblical Archeology of a very fundamental type. Lemaitre was said to advise Pius XII against taking an advocacy on this discovery or conclusion, however. It was Lemaitre who recommended that we keep open minds in our search for truth whichever way the path twists and turns.

    In that sense, when we see something in scripture which does not jive with what we know or experience, we should not ignore it, but investigate it. In searching deeper we hope for better understanding.

  20. Rick says

    When I taught Disciple Bible Study and the topic of literal interpretation came up, I had a simple exercise. I asked the students to tell me about the first three years of their child’s life. After all was said, I recapped the stories. Generally: the women experienced no pain; the child was born with a full head of hair, all teeth, and could walk and talk; never cried one day; etc. They replied that they only told me enough details so that I could get the picture. “Exactly,” I would say.

  21. victor says

    To BAR: How did Shawna Dolansky qualify as a “Biblical Scholar”? If you really believe that than why not consider a name change – “Biblical Nonsense Review”?

  22. Dawn says

    Believing is part of faith. I believe the stories of Creation that are in the Bible are literal (taking words in their usual or most basic sense without metaphor or allegory) and true.
    Hebrews 11:1-3 ” Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.

    For by it the elders obtained a good report.

    Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.

  23. Sheila says

    Frankly, in 2017 why is this even a question – what happened to the world of the biblical scholar? Just a rhetorical question – I do know the answer.

  24. Albert says

    If you are a true child of the living God then the Bible is the only authority, the only scripture to believe in. If you are a true child of the living God then you will experience His divine interaction with you on a constant basis. If you are a true child of the living God then you will feel the Spirit of God dwell in you.

    If you experience these things then you will not at any point doubt the authority of the Word of God(Jesus Christ) who made everything during the creation time period, who sustains everything since the creation and still does today.

    What is described in Genesis 1-11 is way above and beyond the mind of the creature, only the One that created can do what was done.

    We are all living a life of death on this planet, still blessed by God every single day whether we love Him or follow Him, we are all his children created in His image for His pleasure and glory. What happens when we die depends on what happened when we lived. Free will is a gift from God, use it wisely.

  25. Steve says

    I do appreciate BAR for its archeological reviews. But I had not realized until now where it stood, or failed to stand, from a theological standpoint. That said, i can no longer support their efforts and will be canceling my support and subscription.

  26. Alan says

    This is the first of a series of seven (7) posts from earlier this year regarding the creation:
    =======
    Day 1 (“evening” of 3/16 and “morning” of 3/17 in 2017)

    The following commenced this evening in history… Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters. 3 Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light.4 God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. (NASB)

    And, here is the mystery… Colossians 1:13 For He rescued us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son, 14 in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. 15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him. (NASB)

    Confirmation of the mystery… John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. 4 In Him was life, and the life was the Light of men. 5 The Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. (NASB)

    According to Reuben Alcalay, a famous Hebrew lexicographer, Christ’s Name (Heb. Yehoshu’a [yod-he-vav-shin-ayin]/Eng. Joshua) is closely associated with “Let there be…”

    Christ is the Word and the Light — the firstborn of creation. All things were created through and for Him! If one believes in the Big Bang theory and evolution, then the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (see Genesis 1:2) are ALL denied….

    We have been deceived!

    * https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/10/28/pope-francis-backs-theory-of-evolution-says-god-is-no-wizard/?utm_term=.c9c78de389d0
    * http://www.nas.edu/evolution/StatementsReligion.html
    * http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/06/christians-evolution_n_4732998.html
    * http://www.sciencemeetsreligion.org/theology/religions.php
    * http://www.pewforum.org/2009/02/04/religious-groups-views-on-evolution/

    Matthew 12:31 “Therefore I say to you, any sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven people, but blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be forgiven.32 Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, either in this age or in the age to come. (NASB)

    Shema, Yisrael! (Hear, Israel!)

  27. Alan says

    This is the second of a series of seven (7) posts from earlier this year regarding the creation:
    =======
    Day 2 (“evening” of 3/17 and “morning” of 3/18 in 2017)

    The following commenced this evening in history… Genesis 1:6 Then God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” 7 God made the expanse, and separated the waters which were below the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so. 8 God called the expanse heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day. (NASB)

    So, on the second day, our atmosphere was created! The waters above are contained in clouds, and waters below were what we know as the ocean (prior to any land mass). The word translated as “expanse” in these verses is likewise translated as “firmament.”

    From Merriam-Webster:
    firmament
    noun fir·ma·ment \ˈfər-mə-mənt\
    1: the vault or arch of the sky : heavens

    This is what was created specifically on this day: The atmosphere or “heavens” (what meteorologists et al. call the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere, and magnetosphere) as well as the differing cloud types (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cloud_types).

    The Big Bang theory suggests that the initial state of the entire universe was one of INFINITE density and temperature at a finite point in time. I challenge ANYONE to explain how that could possibly occur; it defies ALL known scientific laws! Plus, from where did that dense matter of incredible temperature originate? It simply came into existence from nothingness? What scientific law proves that ANYTHING can be formed from NOTHING? There isn’t — one must have FAITH! Stephen Hawking in “A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes” states that the universe expands, contracts back into the “initial state” or singularity then expands again in an endless cosmological cycle, yet he NEVER explains how that singularity came to be in the first place or exactly why all the laws of physics breakdown within it. He is called one of the greatest minds of our time; I submit that he is given nearly unlimited intellectual leeway due to his physical infirmity.

    All this infinite matter magically coalesced into stars which magically started a fusion reactor in each. Billions of stars magically formed galaxies. Sloughed off matter from stars magically formed planets, moons, asteroids, and every other celestial body in solar systems all while traveling through infinite space at incomprehensible speeds. Recall that we’re allegedly on a spinning oblate spheroid in an elliptical orbit around the sun that is in a rotating arm of the Milky Way galaxy which has a black hole at its center. It’s laughable when you really think about it, but we were all indoctrinated into this way of thinking from the time we had solar system mobiles attached to our cribs.

    In a fraction of planets, water magically formed and in even fewer, atmospheres, and in fewer still — life! What logical, intellectually honest person could believe in such a fantasy — even over billions of “years?” It would certainly require FAITH! Even all the essential amino acids (which originate from diet alone) cannot be synthesized in a lab — much less in a primordial soup in the unimaginably harsh environment of early Earth. That doesn’t even touch upon the complexity of even single-celled organisms and all the intricate, biochemical processes that must occur beforehand to form them in an undirected way. Then, these organisms must magically evolve — again in an undirected way unsupported by the fossil record (lacking evidence of intermediates) — into the interdependent biodiversity in myriad biospheres and habitats observed in our modern world. It’s statistically IMPOSSIBLE! Folks, we have been deceived…

  28. Alan says

    This is the third of a series of seven (7) posts from earlier this year regarding the creation:
    =======
    Day 3 (“evening” of 3/18 and “morning” of 3/19 in 2017)

    The following commenced this evening in history… Genesis 1:9 Then God said, “Let the waters below the heavens be gathered into one place, and let the dry land appear”; and it was so. 10 God called the dry land earth, and the gathering of the waters He called seas; and God saw that it was good. 11 Then God said, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees on the earth bearing fruit after their kind with seed in them”; and it was so. 12 The earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit with seed in them, after their kind; and God saw that it was good. 13 There was evening and there was morning, a third day. (NASB)

    So, what does the Big Bang and evolution predict? Matter magically coalescing into stars; stars magically sloughing off matter to form planets, moons, asteroids, et al. in a solar system; a fraction of planets magically acquiring an atmosphere; a fraction of planets magically acquiring an atmosphere able to support life as we know it; a fraction of those planets magically having liquid water in a temperature range between 0-100 degrees Celsius, exclusive; a fraction of those planets magically raining down inorganic elements able to support life as we know it; a fraction of those planets forming a correct composition of an organic, primordial soup (from inorganic elements in an extremely hostile environment no less); a fraction of those planets with magically forming amino acids with the appropriate stereochemistry to form polypeptide chains to form proteins; yada, yada, yada; ad infinitum. Honestly, who thinks that is even possible in billions of “years?” Again, it’s a statistical improbability regardless of the multitude of solar systems in galaxies with black holes at their center.

    What does the Bible say? God created:

    Day 1: The firmament of the heavens, the waters, a formless world, and His Son (the Light of the world)
    Day 2: The atmosphere (=heavens) and the cloud types
    Day 3: Dry land (a supercontinent some refer to as Pangea) as well as vegetation — seed-bearing plants and fruit-yielding trees — after gathering the superocean (some refer to it as Panthalassa).

    Where are the sun, moon, and stars? Oops! They haven’t been created yet. What life appeared first? Terrestrial flora. That also solves one conundrum: plants vs. seeds. Does that mesh with the Big Bang and evolution theories? Not even remotely…

    In the following year, this particular day served a very special function: it was the vernal equinox that marked the last day of the year (or the day before the first day of the year depending on your perspective). The Book of Enoch describes exactly when the equinoxes take place — on the day of the year when the sun first sets due west (270 degrees) and rises due east (90 degrees) in the appropriate season at the most important place on Earth! See http://www.haderech.info/DSS/1Enoch/1Enoch-Sun.pdf.

    When does that occur in accordance with the (pagan!) Gregorian calendar in 2017? On the evening of March 18th and the morning of March 19th; see https://www.timeanddate.com/sun/israel/jerusalem?month=3&year=2017.

    But, wait… there’s a five minute difference between the length of the “evening” and the length of the “morning.” That’s because our “day” is short! According to God’s calendar, the year is 364 days, and each day is divided into 18 portions — not 24 hours. A sidereal year (a year in relation to the fixed stars) is 365.242189 days.

    365.242189 / 364 = 1.00341260714 x 24 hrs/day = 24.0819025714 hrs/day

    0.0819025714 hrs = 4 mins 54.8492571429 secs (which roughly equates to the 5 minute differential observed above)

    Our “astronomers” tell us that the equinox falls on March 20, 2017. The modern equinox/equilux definition has nothing to do with the implied meaning of equal parts night/light! The equinox is based on the alleged time when “the plane of Earth’s equator passes through the center of the Sun.” God’s law has been changed (i.e., His definition of a year, day, and portion). We have been deceived… nothing is quite as it appears. That’s what Satan does, folks. Shema Yisrael!

  29. Alan says

    This is the fourth of a series of seven (7) posts from earlier this year regarding the creation:
    =======
    Day 4 (“evening” of 3/19 and “morning” of 3/20 in 2017)

    The following commenced this evening in history… Genesis 1:14 Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so.16 God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night; He made the stars also. 17 God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 and to govern the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good. 19 There was evening and there was morning, a fourth day. (NASB)

    Now, it really starts getting good… the sun, moon, and stars were created for what? SIGNS and for SEASONS and for DAYS and YEARS! Yes, folks, this was when time as we know it began, and there is only ONE calendar in the world that affirms this essential truth — the one discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls! See http://www.haderech.info/DSS/Calendar/QumranCalendar.pdf.

    Note that the first day of the first month of Abib (not Nisan!) commences on THE FOURTH DAY OF THE WEEK during the creation week. And, all of God’s appointed times occur on the same day of the week in perpetuity! The false Babylonian (Masoretic) calendar of the modern Jewry certainly doesn’t allow for that; see https://www.mail-archive.com/orion@panda.mscc.huji.ac.il/msg00674.html. Heck, the Talmud Bavli (Babylonian Talmud) with all their “wise” sages state that the creation week commences in the seventh month. There is no mention of Rosh Hashanah or “head of the year” in the entirety of the TaNaKh; that is the machinations of men. See https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Talmud/rh1.html. It’s just a bunch of meaningless drivel…

    Romans 11:25 For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery—so that you will not be wise in your own estimation—that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. (NASB)

    Acts 7:51 “You men who are stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears are always resisting the Holy Spirit; you are doing just as your fathers did. 52 Which one of the prophets did your fathers not persecute? They killed those who had previously announced the coming of the Righteous One, whose betrayers and murderers you have now become; 53 you who received the law as ordained by angels, and yet did not keep it.” (NASB)

    Others of you may be thinking: this guy has totally lost his marbles; today is Sunday — not the THIRD day of the week!* (Recall that the fourth day does not occur until this evening). I submit to you that we follow both the pagan Gregorian (from the Julian originating from Rome) and the Masoretic (originating from Babylon) calendars (among others). Ask yourself: Would Satan, who desires to corrupt EVERYTHING from the Most High, change His calendar, too? Did God’s day start at midnight or when the sun’s orb “kisses” the horizon in the west? Folks, again, we have been deceived….

    Shema Yisrael!

    *Note: This was originally posted on the morning of Sunday, March 19, 2017; therefore, it was still the third day of the week at that time. The fourth day of the week commenced on the “evening” of 3/19 at twilight — when the sun’s orb sits just on the horizon in the western sky towards sunset.

  30. Alan says

    This is the fifth of a series of seven (7) posts from earlier this year regarding the creation:
    =======
    Day 5 (“evening” of 3/20 and “morning” of 3/21 in 2017)

    The following commenced this evening in history… Genesis 1:20 Then God said, “Let the waters teem with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.” 21 God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good.22 God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” 23 There was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. (NASB)

    To recap, God created:

    Day 1: The firmament of the heavens, a formless water world, and His Son (the Light of the world; the firstborn of creation)
    Day 2: The atmosphere and clouds
    Day 3: A supercontinent as well as all flora including seed-bearing plants and fruit-yielding trees
    Day 4: The sun, moon, and stars
    Day 5: All aquatic and avian species

    For those trying to reconcile creationism with evolution… Could all forms of terrestrial flora exist without the sun if each “day” represented eons? Paleontologists state that birds had a reptilian ancestor (see http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_06), but terrestrial species are not created until Day 6. Furthermore, this portion of the evolution debate hinges upon the alleged intermediate Archaeopteryx; see a well-researched counterpoint here: https://www.icr.org/article/321/. Regardless of mounting scientific evidence to the contrary, it is still taught that Archaeopteryx is an intermediate species in our schools and universities. Evolution predicts there would be thousands upon thousands of intermediates discovered in the fossil record; look at how far the reach had to be to produce one!

    Recall, too, that the Big Bang theory supposes that the sun would form first then slough off matter to form planets, moons, et al. These cockamamie theories and Biblical creation cannot be reconciled, so why continue the futility?

    Matthew 7:6 “Do not give what is holy to dogs, and do not throw your pearls before swine, or they will trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces.” (NASB)

    #QuestionEverything

  31. Alan says

    This is the sixth of a series of seven (7) posts from earlier this year regarding the creation:
    =======
    Day 6 (“evening” of 3/21 and “morning” of 3/22 in 2017)

    The following commenced this evening in history… Genesis 1:24 Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind: cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth after their kind”; and it was so. 25 God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.
    26 Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” 27 God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28 God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” 29 Then God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you; 30 and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and to every thing that moves on the earth which has life, I have given every green plant for food”; and it was so. 31 God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. (NASB)

    To recap, God created:

    Day 1: The firmament of the heavens, a formless water world, and His Son (the Light of the world; the firstborn of creation; everything was created through and for Him)
    Day 2: The atmosphere and clouds
    Day 3: A supercontinent as well as all terrestrial flora
    Day 4: The sun, moon, and stars
    Day 5: All aquatic and avian species
    Day 6: All terrestrial fauna including mankind

    Why did God say, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness…?” Because we were a special creation. Remember: There is not only the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, but a multitude of Heavenly Hosts including archangels, angels, cherubim, and seraphim. In the opening verses of Genesis 6 and expounded upon in the Book of Enoch, the Book of Giants, et al., it is stated that the “sons of God” (lit. fallen angels — aka Watchers) came to Earth at Mount Hermon; see https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Hermon#Epigraphy.2C_archaeology_and_references_in_religious_texts. They had sexual relations with the “daughters of men,” and their progeny were literal giants. There were several kinds, but the first were called Nephilim; see https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephilim. Bottom line: Human males are so closely related to angels that there is sexual compatibility with women. Now, what these fallen angels did and the mysteries they taught were abominations and ultimately led to the Great Flood in the time of Noah, but the fact remains, man was made in the image of the Elohim (the family of God)!

    Who is taught this at their church or synagogue? Why are the archaeological remains of these giants hidden from the general public? See http://www.sydhav.no/giants/newspapers.htm. Folks, it’s time for a spiritual awakening! We are a very special creation — the ONLY species on Earth capable of having the indwelling Holy Spirit in our circumcised hearts. Our body is a temple, and our heart is the Holy of Holies!

    1 Corinthians 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own? 20 For you have been bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body. (NASB)

    Romans 5:5 Now hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit who was given to us. (NASB)

    The Big Bang and evolution attempt to downplay our standing in this wonderful thing called God’s creation. We have been deceived…

    #QuestionEverything

  32. Alan says

    This is the seventh of a series of seven (7) posts from earlier this year regarding the creation:
    =======
    Day 7 (“evening” of 3/22 and “morning” of 3/23 in 2017)

    The following commenced this evening in history… Genesis 2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts.2 By the seventh day God completed His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. 3 Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made. (NASB)

    This is the first of God’s appointed times — the weekly Sabbath:

    Leviticus 23:3 ‘For six days work may be done, but on the seventh day there is a sabbath of complete rest, a holy convocation. You shall not do any work; it is a sabbath to the Lord in all your dwellings. (NASB)

    For those of you who think that “New Testament Christians” don’t need to at least understand the Law (Torah), this is in Christ’s own words:

    Matthew 5:17 “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill. 18 For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled. (NASB)

    With that being said, I will leave you with this message:

    2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling the word of truth. (NASB)

    Don’t believe what I’ve posted regarding the creation; study it for yourself! The Holy Spirit, our Helper, was sent on Pentecost/Feast of Weeks in 36 CE to guide us. You don’t need some mega church or denomination:

    Matthew 18:20 “For where two or three have gathered together in My name, I am there in their midst.” (NASB)

    Shema Yisrael!

    #QuestionEverything

  33. Jerry says

    Is anyone on this posting a Christian or what…? I just don’t know for sure…?

  34. Jerry says

    QUESTION ABOVE
    “Should We Take Creation Stories in Genesis Literally?”

    If we do not take the creation story in Genesis as true and literal. one ought to throw the Holy Bible away, it will not serve anyone any logical purpose at all…!

  35. Wes says

    If we really want to be strict in these matters of Biblical interpretation, then we should consider the case of Galileo Galilei in the early 17th century. It was pointed out to him that his views conflicted with verses in several OT books.

    Heliocentrism conflicts with references such as Psalm 93:1, 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30 which include text stating that “the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved.” In the same manner, Psalm 104:5 says, “the Lord set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved.” Further, Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that “And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place.”

    In February 1616, an Inquisitorial commission declared heliocentrism to be “foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture.” The Inquisition found that the idea of the Earth’s movement “receives the same judgement in philosophy and… in regard to theological truth it is at least erroneous in faith”.

    In all fairness, anyone who believes that the Earth rotates on its axis against the fixed stars or orbits in a path about the Sun is not simply in disagreement with Ptolemy and 3rd century Egyptian astronomers, but the texts cited above.

    Like the police inspector in the movie Casablanca, I am shocked that no one has jumped on this error in belief as well. After all, the controversy was explicit enough to construct a case of heresy and obtain a guilty verdict. I don’t think there were any biblical scholars of the 17th century rushing to the rescue.

  36. lovemore says

    Should We Take Creation Stories in Genesis Literally?

    YES! and no further comments

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