The Stones of Herod’s Temple Reveal Temple Mount History

Ancient construction techniques evident in the Herodian temple

The Stones of Herod’s Temple Reveal Temple Mount History

Ancient construction techniques at Herod’s Temple were more sophisticated than we might think. A stonecutter, right, uses a pickax to cut a channel in a limestone block. Meanwhile another worker, left, pours water over some logs stacked in the channel between two blocks. The water will cause the wood to swell, exerting lateral pressure on the block and splitting the block off of the bedrock to which it is attached at bottom. Because the limestone lay in natural horizontal layers, the blocks would cleave along a relatively neat, horizontal line. Studying the ancient construction methods used to create the Herodian Temple give us clues to Temple Mount history. Photo: Leen Ritmeyer.

Building and furnishing the Herodian Temple involved more than stone quarrying and laying, but the stones and foundations of Herod’s Temple can give us clues to Temple Mount history.

What ancient construction techniques can be seen on the site of Herod’s Temple? What does this tell us about Temple Mount history? In the following article, “Quarrying and Transporting Stones for Herod’s Temple Mount,” Leen Ritmeyer, a specialist in Temple Mount history, looks at the quarrying effort and expertise evident in the building of the Herodian Temple.

Horizontally layered local limestone was used to build Herod’s Temple. Stonecutters cut down through blocks of stone; then wood pilings placed in the crevices were saturated with water to such an extent that the pressure broke off the block from the bedrock. Some of this limestone can still be seen uphill from the Herodian Temple in modern Jerusalem. The force of gravity was itself a helpful tool in ancient construction techniques, as well as wooden rollers and oxen. But once on the site of Herod’s Temple, the huge stones had to be set in place; some ashlars of the Herodian Temple weighing 160,000 pounds still stand at a height of 100 feet above the foundations of Herod’s Temple. The physical work of angels? Some have wondered, but ancient construction techniques at Herod’s Temple were more sophisticated than we might imagine. Temple Mount history indicates this was the site of the First Temple, and that the previous platform and additional fill dirt was used to the best advantage.

Ancient construction techniques are evident in the wall of the Herodian Temple. Not all of the stones used in the Herodian Temple weighed 160,000 pounds. Some, weighing merely a few tons, were thrown down from above when the Romans destroyed the city in 70 A.D.

For illustrations by Ritmeyer further explaining ancient construction techniques, see the following article about the Herodian Temple.

 


 

Quarrying and Transporting Stones for Herod’s Temple Mount

by Leen Ritmeyer

The Stones of Herod’s Temple Reveal Temple Mount History

Moving the stones: Stages of quarrying and moving ashlars. In the background, at left, the unworked bedrock exhibits the natural horizontal layering of the limestone in the Jerusalem vicinity. Blocks cut, but not yet removed, appear at upper right. The thickness of the limestone layers determined the height of the blocks that were quarried. Photo: Leen Ritmeyer.

Herod’s construction in the Temple Mount area, like the construction of most of Jerusalem’s buildings, used local limestone.

The mountains around Jerusalem are composed of Turonian and Cenomanian limestone that has a characteristic horizontal layering. These horizontal layers vary between about 18 inches and 5 feet thick. In exceptional cases, the layers are even thicker.

To quarry this limestone the stonecutter first straightened the face of the stone. This consisted of chiseling the rock in such a way as to produce a flat vertical surface—the side of the incipient stone—and a flat surface on top. Next, with a pickax he dug narrow channels 4 to 6 inches wide on all sides except the bottom of the incipient stone. In two of these grooves, at right angles, the quarryman would insert dry wooden beams, hammer them tightly into place and pour water over them. This caused the wood to swell, and the consequent pressure caused the stone to separate from the lower rock layer.

The Stones of Herod’s Temple Reveal Temple Mount History

Stone quarrying: Remains of an ancient quarrying operation can be seen at a tomb complex near the Siloam Pool. Shallow, incomplete channels cut around incipient blocks appear in the bedrock. Photo: Hershel Shanks.

The next stage required squaring-off the stones and preparing them for transportation. The smaller stones were simply placed on wagons, according to Josephus. Some of the corner stones in the Temple Mount, however, weighed 50 tons and sometimes more. Special techniques were developed to transport these stones on large wooden rollers. While shaping the stones, the masons left 12-inch-long projections on opposite sides of each stone. These projections were later removed. In the meantime, however, ropes were placed around these projections, and two short, but strong, cranes outfitted with winches lifted the stones on one side and lowered them onto rollers. Oxen could then pull the stones with ropes placed around the projections. According to Josephus, 1,000 oxen were used in this work.
 


 
The Israel Museum’s new exhibit Herod the Great—The King’s Final Journey guides visitors through the Herodian world and the end of the illustrious king’s life, as brought to light by the late archaeologist Ehud Netzer. Read the article “Herod the Great—The King’s Final Journey” by Suzanne F. Singer as it appears in the March/April 2013 issue of BAR, and take a look at additional web-exclusive highlights from the exhibit in the Bible History Daily slideshow.
 

 

The Stones of Herod’s Temple Reveal Temple Mount History

Building the wall: Building Herod’s Temple Mount wall involved several steps, as illustrated in this drawing. First the line of the wall was laid out by markers (1). Then the construction site was cleared down to bedrock (2). Next the bedrock itself had to be cut and leveled before the ashlars could be put into place (3). Oxen hauled the ashlars from the quarry on rollers (4) for a mile or so down to the construction site, which was 125 feet lower than the quarries north of the Temple Mount. A crane powered by a treadmill lowered the blocks into place (5), and once the courses had been laid, workers chiseled off the projections (6). In a few cases, a projection was not chiseled off for some reason (see photograph), thus providing archaeologists with excellent evidence of the construction process. Photo: Leen Ritmeyer.

The quarries were probably located near what we know today as the Russian Compound, in the heart of modern Jerusalem. There a 50-foot-long column, still attached to the bedrock, can be seen. In the process of quarrying the column, a natural fissure was observed in the rock, so the workmen simply stopped work and left the damaged column in place. The quarries in this area are 125 feet higher than the Temple Mount, so the journey of over a mile to the Temple Mount was downhill. Using the force of gravity obviously made transportation easier.

Once the stones arrived at the building site, they had to be put in place. At both the southwest and southeast corners of the Temple Mount, stones weighing over 80 tons are still in place at a height of at least 100 feet above the foundations. How did they get there? At our excavation site, some of the more pious local laborers who worked with these stones were so awed by their size that they attributed their placement to angels. It would have been impossible, they said, for mere man to lift them into place. In a sense, they were right; no man could have lifted these stones to such a height, notwithstanding all the sophisticated Roman engineering equipment available at the time.
 


 
In Jerusalem’s Temple Mount, Hershel Shanks takes you from the Golden Dome backward through time in an exploration of the temples that once stood in this spot. Read more >>
 

 

The Stones of Herod’s Temple Reveal Temple Mount History

On this block from the southeast corner of the Temple Mount wall, the projection used for maneuvering the stone was not chiseled off, thus providing archaeologists with excellent evidence of the construction process. Photo: Leen Ritmeyer.

In fact, the stones did not have to be lifted from below. They were actually lowered into place from above. The 16-foot-thick walls of the Temple Mount are basically retaining walls, built to retain the high pressure of the fill that was dumped between the previous platform and the new Temple Mount wall. This was Herod’s way of enlarging the previous platform to twice its original size. Herod’s engineers solved the construction problem by pouring the internal fill simultaneously with the construction of the walls. Thus, the first course of stones was laid in the valley surrounding the previous Temple Mount. Then the area between the new and old walls was filled up to the level of the top of this course. This created a new work-level on top of which, from the inside, a second course of stones could be laid. Again fill would be added on the inside, so that a third course of stones could be laid. And so on, course after course, until the whole of Herod’s extension was raised up to the level of the previous Temple platform.

The buildings on the Temple Mount were built of smaller stones. Stones from these structures were thrown down into the street below when the Romans destroyed Jerusalem in 70 A.D. Most of them were later scavenged for other construction. But a few were found in the excavations. These weighed between two and three tons. Stones of this size would have posed no problem for the skilled builders of Herod’s Temple Mount.

Quarrying and Transporting Stones for Herod’s Temple Mount,” by Leen Ritmeyer first appeared in Biblical Archaeology Review, November/December 1989.

 


 

Originally from Holland, Leen Ritmeyer trained as a teacher of physical education in Arnhem before coming to Israel. His work on the Temple Mount excavations, initially as surveyor and then as architect, served as a springboard to a career as an archaeological architect at numerous digs in Israel. Ritmeyer has worked at three other major Jerusalem excavations—the Jewish Quarter, the City of David and the Citadel—producing important reconstruction drawings for all.
 


 
Ehud Netzer was a member of BAR’s editorial advisory board for 30 years and frequently wrote for the magazine. In commemoration of his scholarship, we’ve made all of his publications in the BAS Library available for free. Click here to read a collection of works by the illustrious scholar, including the posthumously published “In Search of Herod’s Tomb.”
 


 

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16 Responses

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  1. Nicholas says

    What always amazes me is the ignorance of people in our modern age. They simply cannot grasp the knowledge and technological skills of the people of the ancient world, thinking them to be so primitive and incapable of the building skills required to produce what they all so obviously did.

    As stated in this article, people attributed the ability to place stones of a certain size to Angels, it couldn’t have been done by man. We also find the all to prevalent and erroneous theory today that various works of the Ancients had to be done by Aliens or with Alien technology.

    I think that question should be not how highly advanced the Ancients were, but instead how much the people of today are lacking in the simplest of skills.

  2. Naqbuquduriuzhur says

    All too true. Unfortunately the idea of ancient man being stupid is the fault of anthropologists who, even today, still cling to ideas like evolution. It’s the idea that man was an idiot and “evolved.”

    This does not match what we know. Historically, when a culture discovered agriculture, development was rapid. Sumer, despite being the oldest civilization that we have good records for, created our 360 degree circle, 60 second minute, 60 minute hour, had schools (for the middle and upper classes, at any rate) that taught parts of speech, arithmetic, history and other subjects. Ur has the oldest university that we know of.

    No, ancient man was definitely not stupid. Nor much different than today (except for technology), given their writings.

    How many realize that Roman medicine was not surpassed until the 1800s? While the Romans didn’t have germ theory, they saw what worked and didn’t work with sanitation, and so they had both running water and sewers in their cities. Even the legions would practice field sanitation and it kept the disease rates down.

    One thing the article doesn’t mention is concrete. The Roman Empire of the time had concrete, and Herod’s seawall was constructed using concrete. (Limestone and pozzolan-based). One wonders if concrete played any role in the construction of Herod’s Temple?

    (Why is it called the “Second Temple”? Wouldn’t the complete rebuilding of the temple by Herod be the third? Solomon’s, Zerubbabel’s, and then Herod’s).

  3. Phil says

    “no man could have lifted these stones to such a height”
    Has anyone here seen the video of the man who lifted an 11-ton slab of concrete all by himself, with no modern machinery at all?
    theforgottentechnology.com/

  4. Joanne says

    I have to agree with Naqbuquduriuzhur. Ancient man, being closer to Adam & Eve who were perfect in mind and body to start with, were much more intelligent than “modern” men give them credit for. Since then mankind has devolved. According to Stanford University’s Gerald Crabtree, new research has shown that mutations are making humans less intelligent and less able to relate emotionally. Just because we cannot explain it doesn’t mean the aliens were the ones who did it.

  5. ioption says

    Thank you for every other excellent article.
    The place else may just anybody get that type of info in
    such a perfect manner of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I am at the look for such info.

  6. jay says

    heavy

  7. jay says

    ount were built of smaller stones. Stones from these structures were thrown down into the street below when the Romans destroyed Jerusalem in 70 A.D. Most of them were later scavenged for other construction. But a few were found in the excavations. These weighed between two and three tons. Stones of this size would have posed no problem for the skilled builders of Herod’s Temple Mount.

    Originally from Holland, Leen Ritmeyer trained as a teacher of physical education in Arnhem before coming to Israel. His work on the Temple Mount excavations, initially as surveyor and then as architect, served as a springboard to a career as an archaeological architect at numerous digs in Israel. Ritmeyer has worked at three other major Jerusalem excavations—the Jewish Quarter, the City of David and the Citadel—producing important reconstruction drawings for all.

    “Quarrying and Transporting Stones for Herod’s Temple Mount,” by Leen Ritmeyer first appeared in Biblical Archaeology Review, Nov/Dec 1989, 46-48.

    Ehud Netzer was a member of BAR’s editorial advisory board for 30 years and frequently wrote for the magazine. In commemoration of his scholarship, we’ve made all of his publications in the BAS Library available for free. Click here to read a collection of works by the illustrious scholar, including the posthumously published “In Search of Herod’s Tomb.”

    Permalink: http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/biblical-sites-places/temple-at-jerusalem/the-stones-of-herod%e2%80%99s-temple-reveal-temple-mount-history/

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    Tagged with ancient construction, Ancient Construction Techniques, archaeologist, archaeology, BAS, Biblical Archaeology, Biblical Archaeology Review, City of David, excavation, GIS, Herodian Temple, Herod’s Temple, Hershel Shanks, Jerusalem, Josephus, Leen Ritmeyer, Review, siloam, Siloam Pool, Temple Mount, Temple Mount History.
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    8 Responses
    Stay in touch with the conversation, subscribe to the RSS feed for comments on this post.
    Nicholas says
    What always amazes me is the ignorance of people in our modern age. They simply cannot grasp the knowledge and technological skills of the people of the ancient world, thinking them to be so primitive and incapable of the building skills required to produce what they all so obviously did.
    As stated in this article, people attributed the ability to place stones of a certain size to Angels, it couldn’t have been done by man. We also find the all to prevalent and erroneous theory today that various works of the Ancients had to be done by Aliens or with Alien technology.
    I think that question should be not how highly advanced the Ancients were, but instead how much the people of today are lacking in the simplest of skills.
    July 21, 2012, 5:33 pm
    Naqbuquduriuzhur says
    All too true. Unfortunately the idea of ancient man being stupid is the fault of anthropologists who, even today, still cling to ideas like evolution. It’s the idea that man was an idiot and “evolved.”
    This does not match what we know. Historically, when a culture discovered agriculture, development was rapid. Sumer, despite being the oldest civilization that we have good records for, created our 360 degree circle, 60 second minute, 60 minute hour, had schools (for the middle and upper classes, at any rate) that taught parts of speech, arithmetic, history and other subjects. Ur has the oldest university that we know of.
    No, ancient man was definitely not stupid. Nor much different than today (except for technology), given their writings.
    How many realize that Roman medicine was not surpassed until the 1800s? While the Romans didn’t have germ theory, they saw what worked and didn’t work with sanitation, and so they had both running water and sewers in their cities. Even the legions would practice field sanitation and it kept the disease rates down.
    One thing the article doesn’t mention is concrete. The Roman Empire of the time had concrete, and Herod’s seawall was constructed using concrete. (Limestone and pozzolan-based). One wonders if concrete played any role in the construction of Herod’s Temple?
    (Why is it called the “Second Temple”? Wouldn’t the complete rebuilding of the temple by Herod be the third? Solomon’s, Zerubbabel’s, and then Herod’s).
    October 14, 2012, 5:59 pm
    Phil says
    “no man could have lifted these stones to such a height”
    Has anyone here seen the video of the man who lifted an 11-ton slab of concrete all by himself, with no modern machinery at all?
    theforgottentechnology.com/
    February 26, 2013, 11:02 am
    Joanne says
    I have to agree with Naqbuquduriuzhur. Ancient man, being closer to Adam & Eve who were perfect in mind and body to start with, were much more intelligent than “modern” men give them credit for. Since then mankind has devolved. According to Stanford University’s Gerald Crabtree, new research has shown that mutations are making humans less intelligent and less able to relate emotionally. Just because we cannot explain it doesn’t mean the aliens were the ones who did it.
    March 16, 2013, 8:33 pm
    ioption says
    Thank you for every other excellent article.
    The place else may just anybody get that type of info in
    such a perfect manner of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I am at the look for such info.
    April 6, 2013, 10:55 pm
    jay says
    heavy
    April 18, 2013, 7:16 pm
    Continuing the Discussion

    The Temple at Jerusalem « The Ginger Jar linked to this post on September 15, 2011
    [...] · The Stones of Herod’s Temple Reveal Temple Mount History [...]
    Livius Nieuwsbrief / maart | Mainzer Beobachter linked to this post on February 25, 2013
    [...] verder: Beth Shemesh, de stenen van koning Herodes, vondsten uit de tijd van de Joodse Opstand, Mode’in en een wijnpers uit Jaffa (ofwel Tel [...]
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  11. Mr. says

    A couple of corrections. The text states that the limestone blocks were wrenched free from the underlying layer of limestone; this is correct, rather than the caption which states that they were attached to bedrock.
    And in Naq’s comment, he states that Sumerians had a 60-second minute. Actually, the minute was divided into seconds only in modern times, after the invention of the chronograph.

Continuing the Discussion

  1. The Temple at Jerusalem « The Ginger Jar linked to this post on September 15, 2011

    [...] · The Stones of Herod’s Temple Reveal Temple Mount History [...]

  2. Livius Nieuwsbrief / maart | Mainzer Beobachter linked to this post on February 25, 2013

    [...] verder: Beth Shemesh, de stenen van koning Herodes, vondsten uit de tijd van de Joodse Opstand, Mode’in en een wijnpers uit Jaffa (ofwel Tel [...]

  3. Aantekeningen bij de Bijbel · Livius Nieuwsbrief / maart linked to this post on September 30, 2013

    [...] verder: Beth Shemesh, de stenen van koning Herodes, vondsten uit de tijd van de Joodse Opstand, Mode’in en een wijnpers uit Jaffa (ofwel Tel [...]

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