Herod’s Temple Mount Revealed in Al-Aqsa Mosque Restoration

Wooden beams from the time of Herod’s Temple Mount in secondary use in the Al-Aqsa Mosque

The restoration of Al-Aqsa Mosque in the 1930s and 1940s included the removal of dozens of wooden beams that predate the mosque’s construction. These beams may have come from buildings on Herod’s Temple Mount. Photo: Israel Antiquities Authority Scientific Archives.

What happened to Jerusalem’s Temple Mount when the Romans destroyed Herod’s Temple in 70 C.E.? There is no report of any building left on the Temple Mount by the time the Muslims erected the iconic Dome of the Rock and the gray-domed Al-Aqsa Mosque in the late seventh and early eighth centuries.

Did the wooden beams from Herod’s Temple Mount survive? In the May/June 2013 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Peretz Reuven studies beams removed from the Al-Aqsa Mosque to reveal the storied history of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount.

How did wooden beams from the era of Herod’s Temple Mount end up being used as tie beams and bond timbers in the Al-Aqsa Mosque?
 


 
BAS Library Members: Read Peretz Reuven’s full article “Wooden Beams from Herod’s Temple Mount: Do They Still Exist?” as it appears in the May/June 2013 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review. While there, check out “Cedars of Lebanon: Exploring the Roots by Nili Liphschitz.”
 

 
The Al-Aqsa Mosque has sustained serious earthquake damage over the years due to its construction on dirt-fill from Herod’s first century C.E . Temple Mount expansion. As a result, the Al-Aqsa Mosque has been rebuilt and renovated several times since its original Umayyad construction. During the 1930s and 1940s, large-scale restoration of the Al-Aqsa Mosque involved the removal of dozens of beams from the mosque’s ceiling, arcades and dome. The great beams, some of which are more than 42 feet long, were covered by modern boards for centuries. The wood inside the beams has a longer story to tell.

High-quality Cedar of Lebanon and cypress beams from Herod’s Temple Mount would have been used and reused in a phenomenon known to archaeologists as “secondary use.” R.W. Hamilton’s 1949 publication on the dismantling of the Al-Aqsa Mosque already noted that many beams showed signs of secondary use. These signs include functional depressions or protrusions intended from their original use as well as decorative woodcarving styles from earlier periods.
 


 
Many of the places, people and events that populate Biblical history are a part of Islam. Our free eBook Islam in the Ancient World traces the Biblical roots of Islam’s traditions and holy sites. Learn how the Dome of the Rock, Al-Aqsa Mosque and other sites are tied to the Bible.
 

 

ON THE COVER: A beam from the Al-Aqsa Mosque with Roman-style carvings may have come from the Royal Stoa on Herod’s Temple Mount. Photo: Peretz Reuven

Recent carbon-14 tests on the beams confirm their antiquity. Some predate Herod’s Temple Mount: One beam dates to the ninth century B.C.E.—the First Temple period! The exact history of the beams is hard to pin down. They were likely used in two or more different constructions, and poor storage has led to the ever-quickening degradation of the beams.

Despite conservation issues, Peretz Reuven was able to make detailed analyses of the beams. For example, indentations on the underside of a beam with Herodian/Roman-period decorations suggest that it rested on column capitals in an earlier structure. The indentations are spaced at a similar interval to columns at Herod’s Royal Stoa. Did this beam, featured on the cover of the May/June 2013 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, come from one of Herod’s Temple Mount structures?
 

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Learn more about the wooden beams from the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Read: Peretz Reuven, “Wooden Beams from Herod’s Temple Mount: Do They Still Exist?” as it appears in the May/June 2013 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review in the BAS Library.

Not a BAS Library member yet? Join the BAS Library today.
 


 

Related Content in Bible History Daily

Lebanese Cedar—The Prized Tree of Ancient Woodworking

Layers of Jerusalem Archaeology

The Stones of Herod’s Temple Reveal Temple Mount History
 


 

Related Products in the BAS Store

Jerusalem’s Temple Mount by Hershel Shanks.

The Archaeology of Jerusalem DVD documentary.

The Walls of the Temple Mount by Eilat Mazar.

Posted in Artifacts and the Bible, Jerusalem.

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8 Responses

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  1. Mike says

    I am confused: Al-Aqsa Mosque is the full complex which includes the frontal prayer house and the Dome of the Rock. This whole place is the Al-Aqsa Mosque area…

    Some people make the mistake to limit the usage of Al-Aqsa Mosque to the grey-dome area only forgetting that the name is for the spot centered around the Rock is situated, and was given before any of these buildings was erected.

  2. Josh says

    To Mike:
    Al-Aqsa Mosque = grey dome
    Dome of the Rock = gold dome
    Al-Haram ash-Sharif = entire Temple Mount plaza

  3. Clifford says

    I find that unlikely. The beams would have decayed by now. The stones of the temple were reused.
    But the “wailing wall” is a Turkish wall, idolitrous for jews & Israelites. herod’s temple stood on Mt.OPHEL!!! – & Neh.3:25-29 proves it. If they look some 700 feet south of the mikvehs & dig some
    30-50 feet underground, they will probably find gold evidence of the temple.

    In Jesus’ Name, Clifford Catton – Oct.30, 2013.

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Continuing the Discussion

  1. Did ancient beams discarded in Old City come from first and second temples? | The Montreal Jewish News linked to this post on May 22, 2013

    [...] this month’s article in Biblical Archaeology Review, Israeli archaeologist Peretz Reuven singled out another beam, among those currently kept on the [...]

  2. Did ancient beams discarded in Old City come from first and second temples? « 'I Am NOT Ashamed of the Gospel of Christ! linked to this post on May 23, 2013

    [...] this month’s article in Biblical Archaeology Review, Israeli archaeologist Peretz Reuven singled out another beam, among those currently kept on the [...]


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