“The appearance of the item in a woman’s grave, which represents one of the most elaborate burials we’ve seen in our region from that era, testifies to both the importance of the awl and the importance of the woman,” said University of Haifa scholar Dr. Danny Rosenberg, one of the coauthors of a recent publication on the copper awl. “It’s possible that we are seeing here the first indications of social hierarchy and complexity.”
Prior to this finding at Tel Tsaf, scholars believed the use of metals in the southern Levant began to emerge in the Late Chalcolithic (copper) period (mid-fifth to early fourth millennium B.C.E.). The discovery of the copper awl suggests that metal was used as early as the late sixth millennium B.C.E.—several hundred years earlier than previously thought. In a paper published in PLOS ONE, Hebrew University, University of Haifa and German Archaeological Institute researchers concluded that the awl may have been imported from a distant source—perhaps the Caucasus, indicating that metal objects were first introduced in the southern Levant through exchange networks. Centuries later during the height of the metal revolution, copper metallurgy was mastered in local production centers in the southern Levant, ultimately setting the stage for the development of urban life in the Bronze Age.
Read more about the Chalcolithic period in Bible History Daily:
Mysteries of the Chalcolithic Age: Was Rogem Hiri the site of ritual excarnation?
Copper and Fire: Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at New York University exhibit on art from the Copper Age